355 research outputs found

    Enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation due to water uptake by fine particles

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    This study characterizes the partitioning behavior of a significant fraction of the ambient organic aerosol through simultaneous measurements of gas and particle watersoluble organic carbon (WSOC). During the summer in Atlanta, WSOC gas/particle partitioning showed a strong RH dependence that was attributed to particulate liquid water. At elevated RH levels (\u3e70%) a significant increase in WSOC partitioning to the particle phase was observed and followed the predicted water uptake by fine particles. The enhancement in particle-phase partitioning translated to increased median particle WSOC concentrations ranging from 0.3 –0.9 mgCm3 . The results provide a detailed overview of the WSOC partitioning behavior in the summertime in an urban region dominated by biogenic emissions, and indicate that secondary organic aerosol formation involving partitioning to liquid water may be a significant aerosol formation route that is generally not considered. Citation: Hennigan, C. J., M. H. Bergin, J. E. Dibb, and R. J. Weber (2008), Enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation due to water uptake by fine particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18801, doi:10.1029/2008GL035046

    Case Report: Familial Gastric Cancer and Chordoma in the Same Family

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    Gastric cancers are the second most common malignancy in the world and represent a major burden to all societies even though the incidence of disease is decreasing in the industrialized world. The aetiology of the disease is complex and is believed to be primarily due to environmental factors but a small proportion of cases are recognised as being associated with genetic factors. Two inherited forms of stomach cancer have been identified, one which is associated with familial clusterings of stomach cancer and the other being a subgroup of families that belong to hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (or Lynch syndrome). In this report we present a small nuclear family which is unusual in that there is a clustering of malignancy which includes stomach cancer, colorectal cancer and chordoma. Genetic analysis failed to reveal any causative mutation in genes associated with HNPCC or in E-cadherin. Together, the clinical picture in this family may indicate that other genetic factors are behind this family's clustering of malignancy

    Direct evidence of N aggregation and diffusion in Au+Au+ irradiated GaN

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    A surface amorphized layer and a buried disordered structure were created in gallium nitride (GaN) irradiated using 1.0 MeV1.0MeV Au+Au+ ions to fluences of 25 and 70 Au+/nm270Au+∕nm2 at room temperature. Bubbles of N2N2 gas within both the amorphized and disordered GaN are formed. A gradient profile with a lower N concentration in the amorphized region is observed, which provides direct evidence of N loss by diffusion in the Au+Au+ irradiated GaN. These results are important to understanding the amorphization processes in GaN and may have significant implications for the design and fabrication of GaN-based devices.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87811/2/021903_1.pd

    Synthesis of satellite (MODIS), aircraft (ICARTT), and surface (IMPROVE, EPA-AQS, AERONET) aerosol observations over eastern North America to improve MODIS aerosol retrievals and constrain surface aerosol concentrations and sources

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    We use an ensemble of satellite (MODIS), aircraft, and ground-based aerosol observations during the ICARTT field campaign over eastern North America in summer 2004 to (1) examine the consistency between different aerosol measurements, (2) evaluate a new retrieval of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and inferred surface aerosol concentrations (PM2.5) from the MODIS satellite instrument, and (3) apply this collective information to improve our understanding of aerosol sources. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (CTM) provides a transfer platform between the different data sets, allowing us to evaluate the consistency between different aerosol parameters observed at different times and locations. We use an improved MODIS AOD retrieval based on locally derived visible surface reflectances and aerosol properties calculated from GEOS-Chem. Use of GEOS-Chem aerosol optical properties in the MODIS retrieval not only results in an improved AOD product but also allows quantitative evaluation of model aerosol mass from the comparison of simulated and observed AODs. The aircraft measurements show narrower aerosol size distributions than those usually assumed in models, and this has important implications for AOD retrievals. Our MODIS AOD retrieval compares well to the ground-based AERONET data (R = 0.84, slope = 1.02), significantly improving on the MODIS c005 operational product. Inference of surface PM2.5 from our MODIS AOD retrieval shows good correlation to the EPA-AQS data (R = 0.78) but a high regression slope (slope = 1.48). The high slope is seen in all AOD-inferred PM2.5 concentrations (AERONET: slope = 2.04; MODIS c005: slope = 1.51) and could reflect a clear-sky bias in the AOD observations. The ensemble of MODIS, aircraft, and surface data are consistent in pointing to a model overestimate of sulfate in the mid-Atlantic and an underestimate of organic and dust aerosol in the southeastern United States. The sulfate overestimate could reflect an excessive contribution from aqueous-phase production in clouds, while the organic carbon underestimate could possibly be resolved by a new secondary pathway involving dicarbonyls

    Water-soluble organic aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin and outflow regions: Airborne and ground measurements during the 2010 CalNex field campaign

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    A particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to a total organic carbon analyzer (PILS-TOC) quantified particulate water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) mass concentrations during the May 2010 deployment of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in the CalNex field study. WSOC data collected during 16 flights provide the first spatiotemporal maps of WSOC in the San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles Basin, and outflow regions of the Basin. WSOC was consistently higher in concentration within the Los Angeles Basin, where sea breeze transport and Basin topography strongly influence the spatial distribution of WSOC. The highest WSOC levels were associated with fire plumes, highlighting the importance of both primary and secondary sources for WSOC in the region. Residual pollution layers enriched with WSOC are observed aloft up to an altitude of 3.2 km and the highest WSOC levels for each flight were typically observed above 500 m. Simultaneous ground WSOC measurements during aircraft overpasses in Pasadena and Riverside typically exhibit lower levels, especially when relative humidity (RH) was higher aloft suggestive of the influence of aerosol-phase water. This points to the underestimation of the radiative effects of WSOC when using only surface measurements. Reduced aerosol-phase water in the eastern desert outflow region likely promotes the re-partitioning of WSOC to the gas phase and suppression of processes to produce these species (partitioning, multiphase chemistry, photolytic production); as a result, WSOC is reduced relative to sulfate (but not as much as nitrate) as aerosol is advected from the Basin to the outflows

    Radiation resistance of gadolinium zirconate pyrochlore

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    The pyrochlore structure-type is a proposed host phase for the immobilization of plutonium. Previous studies have shown that a wide variety of actinide pyrochlores can be synthesized. Gadolinium zirconate with the pyrochlore structure has been shown to be remarkably radiation resistant. We report additional results of ion-beam irradiation studies. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87570/2/15_1.pd

    Fine particle pH and the partitioning of nitric acid during winter in the northeastern United States

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    Particle pH is a critical but poorly constrained quantity that affects many aerosol processes and properties, including aerosol composition, concentrations, and toxicity. We assess PM1 pH as a function of geographical location and altitude, focusing on the northeastern U.S., based on aircraft measurements from the Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity campaign (1 February to 15 March 2015). Particle pH and water were predicted with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model and validated by comparing predicted to observed partitioning of inorganic nitrate between the gas and particle phases. Good agreement was found for relative humidity (RH) above 40%; at lower RH observed particle nitrate was higher than predicted, possibly due to organic-inorganic phase separations or nitrate measurement uncertainties associated with low concentrations (nitrate \u3c 1 µg m−3). Including refractory ions in the pH calculations did not improve model predictions, suggesting they were externally mixed with PM1 sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Sample line volatilization artifacts were found to be minimal. Overall, particle pH for altitudes up to 5000 m ranged between −0.51 and 1.9 (10th and 90th percentiles) with a study mean of 0.77 ± 0.96, similar to those reported for the southeastern U.S. and eastern Mediterranean. This expansive aircraft data set is used to investigate causes in variability in pH and pH-dependent aerosol components, such as PM1 nitrate, over a wide range of temperatures (−21 to 19°C), RH (20 to 95%), inorganic gas, and particle concentrations and also provides further evidence that particles with low pH are ubiquitous
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