1,246 research outputs found

    Role-playing in the elementary school

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    Thesis (Ed. M.)--Boston University, 1963. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 73-74

    Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in adults after a Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries

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    Aims To examine the prevalence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and sudden death (SD) in adults with atrial repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and to determine associated risk factors. Methods and results In a single-centre review, we studied the outcome of 149 adults (mean age 28 ± 7 years) who had undergone a Mustard operation for TGA. During a mean follow-up of 9 ± 6 years, sustained VT and/or SD occurred in 9% (13/149) of the cohort. Sustained VT/SD was more likely to occur in patients with associated anatomic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) 4.9, 95% CI 1.5-16.0], with NYHA class ≥III (HR 9.8, 95% CI 3.0-31.6) and with an impaired subaortic right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0 per 10% decrease in EF). There was an inverse correlation between the RV-EF and both age and QRS duration. Patients with a QRS duration ≥140 ms were at highest risk of sustained VT/SD (HR 13.6, 95% CI 2.9-63.4). Atrial tachyarrhythmia was detected in 66 (44%) patients, but was not a statistically significant predictor of sustained VT/SD in our adult population (HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.6-13.0). Conclusion Sustained VT/SD in adults after a Mustard operation for TGA are more common than previously described. Age, systemic ventricular function, and QRS duration are interrelated and are associated with VT/SD. A QRS duration ≥140 ms helps to identify the high risk patien

    Changes in undergraduate student alcohol consumption as they progress through university

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    BACKGROUND: Unhealthy alcohol use amongst university students is a major public health concern. Although previous studies suggest a raised level of consumption amongst the UK student population there is little consistent information available about the pattern of alcohol consumption as they progress through university. The aim of the current research was to describe drinking patterns of UK full-time undergraduate students as they progress through their degree course. METHOD: Data were collected over three years from 5895 undergraduate students who began their studies in either 2000 or 2001. Longitudinal data (i.e. Years 1–3) were available from 225 students. The remaining 5670 students all responded to at least one of the three surveys (Year 1 n = 2843; Year 2 n = 2219; Year 3 n = 1805). Results: Students reported consuming significantly more units of alcohol per week at Year 1 than at Years 2 or 3 of their degree. Male students reported a higher consumption of units of alcohol than their female peers. When alcohol intake was classified using the Royal College of Physicians guidelines [1] there was no difference between male and females students in terms of the percentage exceeding recommended limits. Compared to those who were low level consumers students who reported drinking above low levels at Year 1 had at least 10 times the odds of continuing to consume above low levels at year 3. Students who reported higher levels of drinking were more likely to report that alcohol had a negative impact on their studies, finances and physical health. Consistent with the reduction in units over time students reported lower levels of negative impact during Year 3 when compared to Year 1. CONCLUSION: The current findings suggest that student alcohol consumption declines over their undergraduate studies; however weekly levels of consumption at Year 3 remain high for a substantial number of students. The persistence of high levels of consumption in a large population of students suggests the need for effective preventative and treatment interventions for all year groups

    NON-INVASIVE IN VIVU TEhlPERATURE MAPPING OF ULTRASOUND HEATING USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUES

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    Abstract-A major problem with conventional methods of measuring heating in vhu is that they are invasive and therefore interfere with heat propagation. A sensitive non-invasi\v method for temperature measurement using in \ivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the temperature dependent chemical shift of the cobalt(II1) nucleus has been developed. Initial experiments demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure ultrasound induced temperature changes in the liver. Tris(ethy1enediamine) cobalt(II1) trichloride was encapsulated in liposomes and injected into seven rats. Heating was performed using a calibrated unfocused transducer operating at 3.41 MHz. After 5 minutes of CW ultrasound exposure, the chemical shift of the cobalt complex indicated that the temperature rise within the liver was 2.0k1.2 OC. This was seen to return to normal upon cessation of heating. The acoustic power was determined in a water bath using a calibrated hydrophone. Theoretical calculations based on the transducer calibration characteristics using the monopole-source solution for estimating tissue temperature increase yielded 2.0 OC based on steady state conditions. These results indicate that experimental values agree with the heating theory

    The Thermal Behaviour of Three Different Auger Pressure Grouted Piles Used as Heat Exchangers

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    Three auger pressure grouted (APG) test piles were constructed at a site in Richmond, Texas. The piles were each equipped with two U-loops of heat transfer pipes so that they could function as pile heat exchangers. The piles were of two different diameters and used two different grouts, a standard APG grout and a thermally enhanced grout. Thermal response tests, where fluid heated at a constant rate is circulated through the pipe loops, were carried out on the three piles, utilising either single or double loops. The resulting test data can be used to determine the surrounding soil thermal conductivity and the pile thermal resistance, both essential design parameters for ground source heat pump systems using pile heat exchangers. This paper uses parameter estimation techniques to fit empirical temperature response curves to the thermal response test data and compares the results with standard line source interpretation techniques. As expected, the thermal response tests with double loops result in smaller thermal resistances than the same pile when the test was run with a single loop. Back analysis of the pile thermal resistance also allows calculation of the grout thermal properties. The thermally enhanced grout is shown to have inferior thermal properties than the standard APG grout. Together these analyses demonstrate the importance of pile size, grout thermal properties and pipe positions in controlling the thermal behaviour of heat exchanger piles

    Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in adults after a Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries

    Get PDF
    AIMS: To examine the prevalence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and sudden death (SD) in adults with atrial repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-centre review, we studied the outcome of 149 adults (mean age 28 +/- 7 years) who had undergone a Mustard operation for TGA. During a mean follow-up of 9 +/- 6 years, sustained VT and/or SD occurred in 9% (13/149) of the cohort. Sustained VT/SD was more likely to occur in patients with associated anatomic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) 4.9, 95% CI 1.5-16.0], with NYHA class >or=III (HR 9.8, 95% CI 3.0-31.6) and with an impaired subaortic right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0 per 10% decrease in EF). There was an inverse correlation between the RV-EF and both age and QRS duration. Patients with a QRS duration >or=140 ms were at highest risk of sustained VT/SD (HR 13.6, 95% CI 2.9-63.4). Atrial tachyarrhythmia was detected in 66 (44%) patients, but was not a statistically significant predictor of sustained VT/SD in our adult population (HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.6-13.0). CONCLUSION: Sustained VT/SD in adults after a Mustard operation for TGA are more common than previously described. Age, systemic ventricular function, and QRS duration are interrelated and are associated with VT/SD. A QRS duration >or=140 ms helps to identify the high risk patient

    Long-term ecological research on Colorado Shortgrass Steppe

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    The SGS-LTER research site was established in 1980 by researchers at Colorado State University as part of a network of long-term research sites within the US LTER Network, supported by the National Science Foundation. Scientists within the Natural Resource Ecology Lab, Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, and Biology Department at CSU, California State Fullerton, USDA Agricultural Research Service, University of Northern Colorado, and the University of Wyoming, among others, have contributed to our understanding of the structure and functions of the shortgrass steppe and other diverse ecosystems across the network while maintaining a common mission and sharing expertise, data and infrastructure.Poster presented at the LTER All Scientists Meeting held in Estes Park, CO on September 10-13, 2012

    Room-temperature cycling of metal fluoride electrodes: Liquid electrolytes for high-energy fluoride ion cells

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    Fluoride ion batteries are potential “next-generation” electrochemical storage devices that offer high energy density. At present, such batteries are limited to operation at high temperatures because suitable fluoride ion–conducting electrolytes are known only in the solid state. We report a liquid fluoride ion–conducting electrolyte with high ionic conductivity, wide operating voltage, and robust chemical stability based on dry tetraalkylammonium fluoride salts in ether solvents. Pairing this liquid electrolyte with a copper–lanthanum trifluoride (Cu@LaF_3) core-shell cathode, we demonstrate reversible fluorination and defluorination reactions in a fluoride ion electrochemical cell cycled at room temperature. Fluoride ion–mediated electrochemistry offers a pathway toward developing capacities beyond that of lithium ion technology

    Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement.

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    BACKGROUND: The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, the 1-year survival rates are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical replacement. However, longer-term follow-up is necessary to determine whether TAVR has prolonged benefits. METHODS: At 25 centers, we randomly assigned 699 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to undergo either surgical aortic-valve replacement or TAVR. All patients were followed for at least 2 years, with assessment of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evaluation. RESULTS: The rates of death from any cause were similar in the TAVR and surgery groups (hazard ratio with TAVR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.15; P=0.41) and at 2 years (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were 33.9% in the TAVR group and 35.0% in the surgery group (P=0.78). The frequency of all strokes during follow-up did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.23; P=0.52). At 30 days, strokes were more frequent with TAVR than with surgical replacement (4.6% vs. 2.4%, P=0.12); subsequently, there were 8 additional strokes in the TAVR group and 12 in the surgery group. Improvement in valve areas was similar with TAVR and surgical replacement and was maintained for 2 years. Paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR (P<0.001), and even mild paravalvular regurgitation was associated with increased late mortality (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A 2-year follow-up of patients in the PARTNER trial supports TAVR as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. The two treatments were similar with respect to mortality, reduction in symptoms, and improved valve hemodynamics, but paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR and was associated with increased late mortality. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.)
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