2,126 research outputs found

    The Magellanic system X-ray sources

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    Using archival X-ray data from the second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue, we present comparative analysis of the overall population of X-ray sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We see a difference between the characteristics of the brighter sources in the two populations in the X-ray band. Utilising flux measurements in different energy bands we are able to sort the X-ray sources based on similarities to other previously identified and classified objects. In this manner we are able to identify the probable nature of some of the unknown objects, identifying a number of possible X-ray binaries and Super Soft Sources.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Poster to appear in proceedings of IAU Symposium 256, The Magellanic System: Stars, Gas, and Galaxies. Keele Univeristy, U

    Extending the impulse response in order to reduce errors due to impulse noise and signal fading

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    A finite impulse response (FIR) digital smearing filter was designed to produce maximum intersymbol interference and maximum extension of the impulse response of the signal in a noiseless binary channel. A matched FIR desmearing filter at the receiver then reduced the intersymbol interference to zero. Signal fades were simulated by means of 100 percent signal blockage in the channel. Smearing and desmearing filters of length 256, 512, and 1024 were used for these simulations. Results indicate that impulse response extension by means of bit smearing appears to be a useful technique for correcting errors due to impulse noise or signal fading in a binary channel

    American Myths, Legends, and Tall Tales: An Encyclopedia of American Folklore

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    Folklore has been a part of American culture for as long as humans have inhabited North America, and increasingly formed an intrinsic part of American culture as diverse peoples from Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania arrived. In modern times, folklore and tall tales experienced a rejuvenation with the emergence of urban legends and the growing popularity of science fiction and conspiracy theories, with mass media such as comic books, television, and films contributing to the retelling of old myths. This multi-volume encyclopedia will teach readers the central myths and legends that have formed American culture since its earliest years of settlement. Its entries provide a fascinating glimpse into the collective American imagination over the past 400 years through the stories that have shaped it. [From the Publisher]https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/books/1095/thumbnail.jp

    The Variable Stars and Blue Horizontal Branch of the Metal-Rich Globular Cluster NGC 6441

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    We present time-series VI photometry of the metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -0.53) globular cluster NGC 6441. Our color-magnitude diagram shows that the extended blue horizontal branch seen in Hubble Space Telescope data exists in the outermost reaches of the cluster. The red clump slopes nearly parallel to the reddening vector. A component of this slope is due to differential reddening, but part is intrinsic. The blue horizontal branch stars are more centrally concentrated than the red clump stars. We have discovered about 50 new variable stars near NGC 6441, among them eight or more RR Lyrae stars which are very probably cluster members. Comprehensive period searches over the range 0.2-1.0 days yielded unusually long periods (0.5-0.9 days) for the fundamental pulsators compared with field RR Lyrae of the same metallicity. Three similar long-period RR Lyrae are known in other metal-rich globulars. With over ten examples in hand, it seems that a distinct sub-class of RR Lyrae is emerging. The observed properties of the horizontal branch stars are in reasonable agreement with recent models which invoke deep mixing to enhance the atmospheric helium abundance, while they conflict with models which assume high initial helium abundance. The light curves of the c-type RR Lyrae seem to have unusually long rise times and sharp minima. Reproducing these light curves in stellar pulsation models may provide another means of constraining the physical variables responsible for the anomalous blue horizontal branch extension and sloped red clump observed in NGC 6441.Comment: 30 pages plus 6 EPS and 6 JPEG figures; uses AAS TeX. Accepted by the Astronomical Journal. Minor changes include computing He abundance, modifications to Figs 1 and 8, and expansion on idea that blue HB stars may be produced in binarie

    Diets and Food Selection of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal During Spring Migration

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    Waterfowl nutritional requirements and food availability at migration stopover habitats may differ from those at nesting or wintering areas. Although there is little information on factors that influence waterfowl diets and food selection during migration, we hypothesized that bird age and wetland density in the surrounding landscape would influence food selection. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify mallard Anas platyrhynchos and blue-winged teal Anas discors diets during migration and evaluate effects of age and wetland density on waterfowl food selection. We collected 30 mallards and 29 blue-winged teal with food items present in esophagi from wetlands in south-central Nebraska during spring 2008 and 2009. Smartweed Polygonum spp. and barnyard grass Echinochloa spp. were the most common seeds found in both mallards and blue-winged teal, while Naididae and Chironomidae larvae were the most common invertebrates in mallard and blue-winged teal diets, respectively. Invertebrates were consumed by both species in greater proportion than available. Both mallards and blue-winged teal collected in wetland complexes selected some seeds over others, whereas birds in isolated wetlands foraged on foods in proportion to availability. After-hatch-year mallards also selected for some seeds over others, as compared with hatch-year birds, which foraged opportunistically on available foods. If after-hatch-year birds and birds in wetland complexes are able to be more selective in their diets relative to food availability at individual wetlands, they may be able to acquire and replenish lipids reserves more efficiently than hatch-year birds or birds in areas with lower wetland densities

    Impacts of human hunting on spatial behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

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    This study was funded by The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., and the Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture at Mississippi State University.Predators can influence populations through top-down effects, but most large predators have been extirpated from the white-tailed deer’s (Odocoileus virginianus) range. Hunters have filled this predatory role, but also can indirectly influence prey species. Indirect behavioral responses can include altered resource selection, space use, or movement patterns. Herein, we developed a controlled study that contained both temporal and spatial risk levels to assess how deer behavior changes in space relative to temporal periods of risk. Total distance travelled (m) and micro-range area (m²) were calculated over two-day periods to determine the general effects of hunting season on deer spatial behavior. Generally, distance travelled, micro-range area, and exploratory behavior decreased during the course of the study, with the greatest decrease occurring during the active 16-day hunting period. Despite potential risk and disturbance from hunters, deer maintained site fidelity to previously established ranges and did not expand micro-range areas. These data indicate that deer recognize threats from humans on the landscape and adapt behavioral strategies by minimizing movement and exhibiting high residency times in well-established ranges, factors known to influence harvest susceptibility. This information can be used to assess potential impacts from hunting for management purposes, but also to test the adaptive ability of animals to risk.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings

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    Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results

    eIF4A Inhibition Allows Translational Regulation of mRNAs Encoding Proteins Involved in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in our increasingly aging population. The debilitating cognitive and behavioral symptoms characteristic of AD make it an extremely distressing illness for patients and carers. Although drugs have been developed to treat AD symptoms and to slow disease progression, there is currently no cure. The incidence of AD is predicted to increase to over one hundred million by 2050, placing a heavy burden on communities and economies, and making the development of effective therapies an urgent priority. Two proteins are thought to have major contributory roles in AD: the microtubule associated protein tau, also known as MAPT; and the amyloid-beta peptide (A-beta), a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Oxidative stress is also implicated in AD pathology from an early stage. By targeting eIF4A, an RNA helicase involved in translation initiation, the synthesis of APP and tau, but not neuroprotective proteins, can be simultaneously and specifically reduced, representing a novel avenue for AD intervention. We also show that protection from oxidative stress is increased upon eIF4A inhibition. We demonstrate that the reduction of these proteins is not due to changes in mRNA levels or increased protein degradation, but is a consequence of translational repression conferred by inhibition of the helicase activity of eIF4A. Inhibition of eIF4A selectively and simultaneously modulates the synthesis of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease: reducing A-beta and tau synthesis, while increasing proteins predicted to be neuroprotective
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