30,535 research outputs found

    Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions

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    The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies cH>η where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular "separator" component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c2/H > η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c2/H > η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is "head-on" (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced

    Analytic solutions of the magnetic annihilation and reconnection problems. I. Planar flow profiles

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    The phenomena of steady-state magnetic annihilation and reconnection in the vicinity of magnetic nulls are considered. It is shown that reconnective solutions can be derived by superposing the velocity and magnetic fields of simple magnetic annihilation models. These solutions contain most of the previous models for magnetic merging and reconnection, as well as introducing several new solutions. The various magnetic dissipation mechanisms are classified by examining the scaling of the Ohmic diffusion rate with plasma resistivity. Reconnection solutions generally allow more favorable "fast" dissipation scalings than annihilation models. In particular, reconnection models involving the advection of planar field components have the potential to satisfy the severe energy release requirements of the solar flare. The present paper is mainly concerned with magnetic fields embedded in strictly planar flows—a discussion of the more complicated three-dimensional flow patterns is presented in Part II [Phys. Plasmas 4, 110 (1997)]

    Bessel beam propagation: Energy localization and velocity

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    The propagation of a Bessel beam (or Bessel-X wave) is analyzed on the basis of a vectorial treatment. The electric and magnetic fields are obtained by considering a realistic situation able to generate that kind of scalar field. Specifically, we analyze the field due to a ring-shaped aperture over a metallic screen on which a linearly polarized plane wave impinges. On this basis, and in the far field approximation, we can obtain information about the propagation of energy flux and the velocity of the energy.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Generalized Affine Coherent States: A Natural Framework for Quantization of Metric-like Variables

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    Affine variables, which have the virtue of preserving the positive-definite character of matrix-like objects, have been suggested as replacements for the canonical variables of standard quantization schemes, especially in the context of quantum gravity. We develop the kinematics of such variables, discussing suitable coherent states, their associated resolution of unity, polarizations, and finally the realization of the coherent-state overlap function in terms of suitable path-integral formulations.Comment: 17 pages, LaTeX, no figure

    Changes in the pronunciation of Māori and implications for teachers and learners of Māori

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    This paper discusses changes in the pronunciation of Māori and implications for teachers and learners of Māori. Data on changes in the pronunciation of Māori derives from the MAONZE project (Māori and New Zealand English with support from the Marsden fund). The project uses recordings from three sets of speakers to track changes in the pronunciation of Māori and evaluate influence from English. Results from the project show changes in both vowel quality and vowel duration and some evidence of diphthong mergers in pairs such as ai/ae and ou/au, especially amongst the younger speakers. In terms of duration the younger speakers are producing smaller length distinctions between long/short vowel pairs other than /ā, a/. We discuss the implications of such changes for those teaching Māori and for students learning Māori as a subject. These changes raise interesting questions concerning the pronunciation of Māori by future generations

    /u/ fronting and /t/ aspiration in Māori and New Zealand English

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    This article examines the relationship between the frontness of /u/ and the aspiration of /t/ in both Māori and New Zealand English (NZE). In both languages, these processes can be observed since the earliest recordings dating from the latter part of the nineteenth century. We report analyses of these developments for three groups of male speakers of Māori spanning the twentieth century. We compare the Māori analyses with analyses of related features of the speakers' English and of the English of monolingual contemporaries. The occurrence of these processes in Māori cannot be seen simply as interference from NZE as the Māori-speaking population became increasingly bilingual. We conclude that it was the arrival of English with its contrast between aspirated and unaspirated plosives, rather than direct borrowing, that was the trigger for the fronting of the hitherto stable back Māori /u/ vowel together with increased aspiration of /t/ before both /i/ and /u/