849 research outputs found

    The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago

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    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.peer-reviewe

    Introduced sap-feeding insect pests of crop plants in the Maltese Islands

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    Sap-feeding insects within Hemiptera and Thysanoptera are some of the most important crop pests world-wide. Apart from the loss of yield they cause by sap depletion, saliva toxicity and soiling of the leaves, some species transmit serious plant virus diseases. Important sap-feeding species that have been introduced to the Maltese Islands include the whitefly Bemisia tabaci; the scale insects Pseudo coccus !ongispinus, Planococcus citri and lcerya purchasi; the aphids Aphis gossypii, Aphis spiraecola, Myzus persicae and Viteus viti/oliae; and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. For each of these pests information is provided on area of origin, present distribution, host-plant range and virus disease transmission. Control strategies undertaken in the Maltese Islands are described where relevant. Some general considerations on quarantine measures are discussed.peer-reviewe

    Aphids associated with shrubs, herbaceous plants and crops in the Maltese Archipelago (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea)

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    A survey of the aphids associated with Maltese shrubs, herbaceous plants and crops was carried out. Sixty six aphid species were recorded from more than 90 species of host plants. Forty eight aphids were recorded from the Maltese islands for the fi rst time bringing the total number of aphid species known from these islands to 99. New records include: Acyrthosiphon lactucae, A. pisum, Anoecia vagans, Aphis alienus, A. euphorbiae, A. hederae, A. lambersi, A. multifl orae, A. nasturtii, A. parietariae, A. picridicola, A. ruborum, A. sedi, Aulacorthum solani, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Capitophorus sp. nr. similis, Clypeoaphis suaedae, Cryptomyzus korschelti, Dysaphis apiifolia, D. foeniculus, D. pyri, D. tulipae, Hyadaphis coriandri, H. foeniculi, H. passerinii, Hyperomyzus lactucae, Idiopterus nephrelepidis, Macrosiphoniella absinthii, M. artemisiae, M. sanborni, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Ma. rosae, Melanaphis donacis, Metopolophium dirhodum, Pterochloroides persicae, Rectinasus buxtoni, Rhopalosiphum maidis, R. padi, R. rufi abdominale, Schizaphis graminum, Semiaphis dauci, Sipha maydis, Sitobion avenae, S. fragariae, Therioaphis alatina, Uroleucon inulae, U. hypochoeridis and U. sonchi. Of these 99 aphid species, 58 are of economic importance and 16 are alien introductions. For 15 of the aphid species, a total of 22 new host-plant records are made. Ten species of ants were found attending 18 aphid species.peer-reviewe

    NEW INDONESIAN COUNTRY RECORDS AND SPECIES INFORMATION FOR MEALYBUGS (HEMIPTERA PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) IN WIRJATI’S HISTORIC COLLECTION

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    Between 1955 and 1960, a collection of slide-mounted mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) was prepared by Mrs Wirjati, using samples collected between 1916 and 1960 from a variety of hosts in Indonesia. The collection is a record of which species were established in the country in 1960. The slides, deposited at the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture in Java, are the earliest material in the national mealybug collection. There are 181 temporary slide mounts of unstained, waxy mealybugs mounted in agar or gum chloral media that have dried out to varying degrees. Specimens were retrieved from 50 representative slides and re-mounted as stained, archival mounts in Canada balsam. The method used to retrieve the specimens from the old mounts is described. The re-mounted specimens were re-identified using up-to-date, published identification keys, resulting in new identities for most of the  specimens. Fifteen species belonging to 12 genera were identified, however specimens from four of the slides  could not be identified beyond genus level. The Wirjati slides of Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, Hordeolicoccus nephelii (Takahashi) and Paraputo corbetti (Takahashi) are new country records. The differences between the fauna in Wirjati’s collection and that found in Indonesia today are discussed

    A taxonomic update of Takahashi’s historic collection of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Malaysia and Singapore

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    Dr. Ryoichi Takahashi collected mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore in 1943–1944, and mounted them in 39 permanent slide mounts using Canada balsam. The slides are deposited in the Department of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this research was to update the identification of Takahashi’s specimens using recent taxonomic keys. Some preparations on cavity slides were re-mounted to facilitate identification. The re-mounted specimens, and those on the original slides, were re-examined and 12 species were identified. The Takahashi samples of Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) and Rastrococcus mangiferae (Green) are the earliest records of these species from Peninsular Malaysia

    Cycad Aulacaspis Scale, a Newly Introduced Insect Pest in Indonesia

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    Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)) is native to Thailand and Vietnam. Since the early 1990s it has been spreading around the world due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its accidental introduction to Florida endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry; and in Guam and Taiwan, endemic cycads (Cycas micronesica and C. taitungensis, respectively) are currently threatened with extinction by cycad aulacaspis scale. In November 2011, an introduced scale was discovered damaging cycads in the Bogor Botanic Garden. Samples from Bogor were taken for identification of the scale, and the material was kept for some time to rear out any insect parasitoids that were present. Both the scale insects and parasitoids were prepared on microscope slides and studied microscopically for authoritative identification. The scale was confirmed as A. yasumatsui. The parasitoid Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Aurivillius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and the hyperparasitoid Signiphora bifasciata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) were identified from the samples. Unless immediate remedial measures are taken, several endemic species of cycad in Indonesia may be endangered by infestation by cycad aulacaspis scale

    New distribution and host records for white coconut scale, \u3ci\u3eParlagena bennetti\u3c/i\u3e Williams (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

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    The white coconut scale, Parlagena bennetti Williams, 1969 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is reported for the first time on New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), coconut, Cocos nucifera L., Manila palm, Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) H.E. Moore, oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and an oil palm hybrid OxG: E. oleifera x E. guineensis (Arecaceae) in continental Colombia, and on coconut from Venezuela. Previously, P. bennetti was known only on the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and San Andres, causing serious damage to coconut, its only known host until now. A brief characterization of P. bennetti and an updated list of 23 species of scale insects of the family Diaspididae reported worldwide on Elaeis spp. is provided. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la escama blanca del cocotero Parlagena bennetti Williams, 1969 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) sobre lino de Nueva Zelanda, Phormium tenax J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), palma de coco Cocos nucifera L., palma Manila Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) H.E. Moore, palma de aceite Elaeis guineensis Jacq. y un hibrido de palma de aceite OxG: E. oleifera x E. guineensis (Arecaceae) en Colombia continental y sobre cocotero en Venezuela. Hasta ahora P. bennetti solo se conocía en la isla de Trinidad y en San Andrés, en el Caribe, causando graves daños al cocotero, el único hospedero conocido hasta ahora. Se provee una breve caracterización de P. bennetti, y un listado actualizado de 23 insectos escama de la familia Diaspididae reportadas sobre Elaeis spp. en el mundo

    The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago

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    Abstract Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed

    Invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the threats they present to Mediterranean countries

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    Due to their small size and cryptic habits, alien mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) can easily enter countries around the Mediterranean basin through trade in live planting material and fresh produce. The recent increase in mealybug introductions probably reflects ever-faster transport in globalised trade, the free movement of goods within the European Union and the weakness of plant quarantine screening by national plant protection organisations. Purchases over the Internet, shipments of plants by post and exchanges of material by plant hobbyists escape control by quarantine services and contribute substantially to mealybug introductions on plants like bamboos and succulents.peer-reviewe

    Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Indonesia and its note on the three solanaceous plants

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    The presence of eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Indonesia and it infested host plants have been reported in this paper. It was collected in 2017 on cassava, Manihot utilissima in Central Java; additional samples were collected on Turkey berry, Solanum torvum in East and West Java in 2020, and in Aceh (Sumatra) in 2021. In a rearing experiment, the survivorship of C. insolita on three host plant species, Solanum melongena (eggplant), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), and Capsicum annuum (chilli) was tested; based on the non-parametric Dunn’s test at a 5% level, the mealybug thrives best on Solanum melongena
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