279 research outputs found

    Applying CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing to Study Genes Involved in Peroxisome Biogenesis or Peroxisomal Functions

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    The development and application of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology for genome editing of mammalian cells have opened up a wealth of possibilities for genetically modifying and manipulating human cells, and use in functional studies or therapeutic approaches. Here we describe the approach that we have been using successfully to generate multiple human cell lines with targeted (partial) gene deletions, i.e., knockout cells, or human cells with modified genomic nucleotide sequences, i.e., knock-in cells, in genes encoding known or putative proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis or peroxisomal functions

    The origin of long-chain fatty acids required for de novo ether lipid/plasmalogen synthesis

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    Peroxisomes are single-membrane bounded organelles that in humans play a dual role in lipid metabolism, including the degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and the synthesis of ether lipids/plasmalogens. The first step in de novo ether lipid synthesis is mediated by the peroxisomal enzyme glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase, which has a strict substrate specificity reacting only with the long-chain acyl-CoAs. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of these long-chain acyl-CoAs. To this end, we developed a sensitive method for the measurement of de novo ether phospholipid synthesis in cells and, by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, generated a series of HeLa cell lines with deficiencies of proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, beta-oxidation, ether lipid synthesis, or metabolite transport. Our results show that the long-chain acyl-CoAs required for the first step of ether lipid synthesis can be imported from the cytosol by the peroxisomal ABCD proteins, in particular ABCD3. Furthermore, we show that these acyl-CoAs can be produced intraperoxisomally by chain shortening of CoA esters of very long-chain fatty acids via beta-oxidation. Our results demonstrate that peroxisomal beta-oxidation and ether lipid synthesis are intimately connected and that the peroxisomal ABC transporters play a crucial role in de novo ether lipid synthesis

    Peroxisomal NAD(H) Homeostasis in the Yeast <i>Debaryomyces hansenii</i> Depends on Two Redox Shuttles and the NAD<sup>+</sup> Carrier, Pmp47

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    Debaryomyces hansenii is considered an unconventional yeast with a strong biotechnological potential, which can produce and store high amounts of lipids. However, relatively little is known about its lipid metabolism, and genetic tools for this yeast have been limited. The aim of this study was to explore the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway in D. hansenii. To this end, we employed recently developed methods to generate multiple gene deletions and tag open reading frames with GFP in their chromosomal context in this yeast. We found that, similar as in other yeasts, the β-oxidation of fatty acids in D. hansenii was restricted to peroxisomes. We report a series of experiments in D. hansenii and the well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that show that the homeostasis of NAD+ in D. hansenii peroxisomes is dependent upon the peroxisomal membrane protein Pmp47 and two peroxisomal dehydrogenases, Mdh3 and Gpd1, which both export reducing equivalents produced during β-oxidation to the cytosol. Pmp47 is the first identified NAD+ carrier in yeast peroxisomes

    Functional Analysis of GSTK1 in Peroxisomal Redox Homeostasis in HEK-293 Cells

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    Peroxisomes serve as important centers for cellular redox metabolism and communication. However, fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of how the peroxisomal redox equilibrium is maintained. In particular, very little is known about the function of the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione in the peroxisome interior and how the glutathione antioxidant system balances with peroxisomal protein thiols. So far, only one human peroxisomal glutathione-consuming enzyme has been identified: glutathione S-transferase 1 kappa (GSTK1). To study the role of this enzyme in peroxisomal glutathione regulation and function, a GSTK1-deficient HEK-293 cell line was generated and fluorescent redox sensors were used to monitor the intraperoxisomal GSSG/GSH and NAD+/NADH redox couples and NADPH levels. We provide evidence that ablation of GSTK1 does not change the basal intraperoxisomal redox state but significantly extends the recovery period of the peroxisomal glutathione redox sensor po-roGFP2 upon treatment of the cells with thiol-specific oxidants. Given that this delay (i) can be rescued by reintroduction of GSTK1, but not its S16A active site mutant, and (ii) is not observed with a glutaredoxin-tagged version of po-roGFP2, our findings demonstrate that GSTK1 contains GSH-dependent disulfide bond oxidoreductase activity

    THE PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN PEROXISOMES

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    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that play a central role in human physiology by catalyzing a range of unique metabolic functions. The importance of peroxisomes for human health is exemplified by the existence of a group of usually severe diseases caused by an impairment in one or more peroxisomal functions. Among others these include the Zellweger spectrum disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and Refsum disease. To fulfill their role in metabolism, peroxisomes require continued interaction with other subcellular organelles including lipid droplets, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. In recent years it has become clear that the metabolic alliance between peroxisomes and other organelles requires the active participation of tethering proteins to bring the organelles physically closer together, thereby achieving efficient transfer of metabolites. This review intends to describe the current state of knowledge about the metabolic role of peroxi-somes in humans, with particular emphasis on the metabolic partnership between peroxisomes and other organelles and the consequences of genetic defects in these processes. We also describe the biogenesis of peroxisomes and the consequences of the multiple genetic defects therein. In addition, we discuss the functional role of peroxisomes in different organs and tissues and include relevant information derived from model systems, notably peroxisomal mouse models. Finally, we pay particular attention to a hitherto underrated role of peroxisomes in viral infections

    Bi-allelic ACBD6 variants lead to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive and complex movement disorders

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    The acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 (ACBD6) is ubiquitously expressed, plays a role in the acylation of lipids and proteins, and regulates the N-myristoylation of proteins via N-myristoyltransferase enzymes (NMTs). However, its precise function in cells is still unclear, as is the consequence of ACBD6 defects on human pathophysiology. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international data sharing efforts, we identified 45 affected individuals from 28 unrelated families (consanguinity 93%) with bi-allelic pathogenic, predominantly loss-of-function (18/20) variants in ACBD6. We generated zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis acbd6 knockouts by CRISPR/Cas9 and characterized the role of ACBD6 on protein N-myristoylation with YnMyr chemical proteomics in the model organisms and human cells, with the latter also being subjected further to ACBD6 peroxisomal localization studies. The affected individuals (23 males and 22 females), with ages ranging from 1 to 50 years old, typically present with a complex and progressive disease involving moderate-to-severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%) with significant expressive language impairment (98%), movement disorders (97%), facial dysmorphism (95%), and mild cerebellar ataxia (85%) associated with gait impairment (94%), limb spasticity/hypertonia (76%), oculomotor (71%) and behavioural abnormalities (65%), overweight (59%), microcephaly (39%) and epilepsy (33%). The most conspicuous and common movement disorder was dystonia (94%), frequently leading to early-onset progressive postural deformities (97%), limb dystonia (55%), and cervical dystonia (31%). A jerky tremor in the upper limbs (63%), a mild head tremor (59%), parkinsonism/hypokinesia developing with advancing age (32%), and simple motor and vocal tics were among other frequent movement disorders. Midline brain malformations including corpus callosum abnormalities (70%), hypoplasia/agenesis of the anterior commissure (66%), short midbrain and small inferior cerebellar vermis (38% each), as well as hypertrophy of the clava (24%) were common neuroimaging findings. acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus models effectively recapitulated many clinical phenotypes reported in patients including movement disorders, progressive neuromotor impairment, seizures, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, and midbrain defects accompanied by developmental delay with increased mortality over time. Unlike ACBD5, ACBD6 did not show a peroxisomal localisation and ACBD6-deficiency was not associated with altered peroxisomal parameters in patient fibroblasts. Significant differences in YnMyr-labelling were observed for 68 co- and 18 post-translationally N-myristoylated proteins in patient-derived fibroblasts. N-Myristoylation was similarly affected in acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis models, including Fus, Marcks, and Chchd-related proteins implicated in neurological diseases. The present study provides evidence that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in ACBD6 lead to a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome accompanied by complex and progressive cognitive and movement disorders

    Ether lipid transfer across the blood-brain and placental barriers does not improve by inactivation of the most abundant ABC transporters

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    Phospholipid transport from the periphery to the brain is an understudied topic. When certain lipid species are deficient due to impaired synthesis, though, transfer across the blood-brain barrier is essential for replenishing lipids in the brain. For example, the deficiency in plasmalogens, the most abundant ether lipids in mammals, has detrimental effects on the brain, which is a major issue in inherited peroxisomal disorders but also contributes to more common disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Oral administration of alkylglycerols like batyl alcohol, which carry a pre-formed ether bond, enables replenishment of ether lipids in various peripheral tissues. However, plasmalogen deficiency in the brain cannot be overcome by this approach. Here, we tried to increase cerebral plasmalogen uptake by modulating the efflux transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized, based on previous literature, that at least some ether lipid species readily enter endothelial cells of the barrier through the transporter MFSD2A but are re-exported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. By crossbreeding Mdr1a-/-/Mdr1b-/-/Bcrp-/- and ether lipid-deficient Gnpat-/- mice as well as pharmacological inhibition with MK-571 to inactivate the major ABC transporters at the blood-brain barrier, we evaluated the potential of combined ABC transporter inhibition and oral batyl alcohol administration for the treatment of plasmalogen deficiency. We found that even in the absence of the most abundant ABC transporters, batyl alcohol supplementation did not restore plasmalogen levels in the brain, despite the presence of a wide spectrum of ether lipid subspecies in the plasma as demonstrated by lipidomic analysis. Surprisingly, batyl alcohol treatment of pregnant Gnpat+/- dams had beneficial effects on the plasmalogen levels of Gnpat-/- offspring with defective ether lipid biosynthesis, independently of ABC transporter status at the placental barrier. Our results underline the autonomy of brain lipid homeostasis and indicate that peripheral supplementation of ether lipids is not sufficient to supply the brain with larger amounts of plasmalogens. Yet, the findings suggest that alkylglycerol treatment during pregnancy may pose a viable option to ameliorate some of the severe developmental defects of inborn ether lipid deficiency

    3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Expanding the Clinical Spectrum and Quantitation of D- and L-3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid by an LC-MS/MS Method

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    A deficiency of 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase (HIBADH) has been recently identified as a cause of primary 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in two siblings; the only previously recognized primary cause had been a deficiency of methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme that is immediately downstream of HIBADH in the valine catabolic pathway and is encoded by the ALDH6A1 gene. Here we report on three additional patients from two unrelated families who present with marked and persistent elevations of urine L-3-hydroxyisobutyric acid (L-3HIBA) and a range of clinical findings. Molecular genetic analyses revealed novel, homozygous variants in the HIBADH gene that are private within each family. Evidence for pathogenicity of the identified variants is presented, including enzymatic deficiency of HIBADH in patient fibroblasts. This report describes new variants in HIBADH as an underlying cause of primary 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria and expands the clinical spectrum of this recently identified inborn error of valine metabolism. Additionally, we describe a quantitative method for the measurement of D- and L-3HIBA in plasma and urine and present the results of a valine restriction therapy in one of the patients

    Ether lipid transfer across the blood-brain and placental barriers does not improve by inactivation of the most abundant ABC transporters

    No full text
    Phospholipid transport from the periphery to the brain is an understudied topic. When certain lipid species are deficient due to impaired synthesis, though, transfer across the blood-brain barrier is essential for replenishing lipids in the brain. For example, the deficiency in plasmalogens, the most abundant ether lipids in mammals, has detrimental effects on the brain, which is a major issue in inherited peroxisomal disorders but also contributes to more common disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Oral administration of alkylglycerols like batyl alcohol, which carry a pre-formed ether bond, enables replenishment of ether lipids in various peripheral tissues. However, plasmalogen deficiency in the brain cannot be overcome by this approach. Here, we tried to increase cerebral plasmalogen uptake by modulating the efflux transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized, based on previous literature, that at least some ether lipid species readily enter endothelial cells of the barrier through the transporter MFSD2A but are re-exported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. By crossbreeding Mdr1a-/-/Mdr1b-/-/Bcrp-/- and ether lipid-deficient Gnpat-/- mice as well as pharmacological inhibition with MK-571 to inactivate the major ABC transporters at the blood-brain barrier, we evaluated the potential of combined ABC transporter inhibition and oral batyl alcohol administration for the treatment of plasmalogen deficiency. We found that even in the absence of the most abundant ABC transporters, batyl alcohol supplementation did not restore plasmalogen levels in the brain, despite the presence of a wide spectrum of ether lipid subspecies in the plasma as demonstrated by lipidomic analysis. Surprisingly, batyl alcohol treatment of pregnant Gnpat+/- dams had beneficial effects on the plasmalogen levels of Gnpat-/- offspring with defective ether lipid biosynthesis, independently of ABC transporter status at the placental barrier. Our results underline the autonomy of brain lipid homeostasis and indicate that peripheral supplementation of ether lipids is not sufficient to supply the brain with larger amounts of plasmalogens. Yet, the findings suggest that alkylglycerol treatment during pregnancy may pose a viable option to ameliorate some of the severe developmental defects of inborn ether lipid deficiency

    How to proceed after “negative” exome: A review on genetic diagnostics, limitations, challenges, and emerging new multiomics techniques

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    Exome sequencing (ES) in the clinical setting of inborn metabolic diseases (IMDs) has created tremendous improvement in achieving an accurate and timely molecular diagnosis for a greater number of patients, but it still leaves the majority of patients without a diagnosis. In parallel, (personalized) treatment strategies are increasingly available, but this requires the availability of a molecular diagnosis. IMDs comprise an expanding field with the ongoing identification of novel disease genes and the recognition of multiple inheritance patterns, mosaicism, variable penetrance, and expressivity for known disease genes. The analysis of trio ES is preferred over singleton ES as information on the allelic origin (paternal, maternal, “de novo”) reduces the number of variants that require interpretation. All ES data and interpretation strategies should be exploited including CNV and mitochondrial DNA analysis. The constant advancements in available techniques and knowledge necessitate the close exchange of clinicians and molecular geneticists about genotypes and phenotypes, as well as knowledge of the challenges and pitfalls of ES to initiate proper further diagnostic steps. Functional analyses (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) can be applied to characterize and validate the impact of identified variants, or to guide the genomic search for a diagnosis in unsolved cases. Future diagnostic techniques (genome sequencing [GS], optical genome mapping, long-read sequencing, and epigenetic profiling) will further enhance the diagnostic yield. We provide an overview of the challenges and limitations inherent to ES followed by an outline of solutions and a clinical checklist, focused on establishing a diagnosis to eventually achieve (personalized) treatment
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