654 research outputs found

    Julian of Norwich and her children today: Editions, translations and versions of her revelations

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    The viability of such concepts as "authorial intention," "the original text," "critical edition" and, above all, "scholarly editorial objectivity" is not what it was, and a study of the textual progeny of the revelations of Julian of Norwich--editions, versions, translations and selections--does little to rehabilitate them. Rather it tends to support the view that a history of reading is indeed a history of misreading or, more positively, that texts can have an organic life of their own that allows them to reproduce and evolve quite independently of their author. Julian's texts have had a more robustly continuous life than those of any other Middle English mystic. Their history--in manuscript and print, in editions more or less approximating Middle English and in translations more or less approaching Modern English--is virtually unbroken since the fifteenth century. But on this perilous journey, many and strange are the clutches into which she and her textual progeny have fallen

    The Wnt antagonist sFRP1 is downregulated in premalignant large bowel adenomas

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    Our previous studies have implicated the Wnt antagonist, sFRP1, as a tumour suppressor gene in advanced colorectal cancer. In this study, we set out to investigate the relationship between sFRP1 expression and large bowel adenomas, a precursor of colorectal cancer. The induction of β-catenin/TCF mediated transcription is both a frequent early event in colorectal neoplasia, and a key downstream effect of wnt growth factor signalling. Lithium treatment of a small bowel mucosal cell line (FHs 74 int) induced sFRP1 within 8 h, indicating that this gene is positively regulated by β-catenin, contrasting with the suppression of sFRP1 expression, we saw previously in advanced colorectal cancers. We therefore investigated a series of 12 adenomas and matched large bowel mucosa samples. Real-time RT–PCR analysis showed a reduction in sFRP1 expression in all 12 dysplastic lesions (median 485-fold, IQR 120- to 1500-fold), indicating factors other than β-catenin influence sFRP1 levels. In a second series of 11 adenomas, we identified methylation of the sFRP1 promotor region in all 11 samples, and this was increased compared with the surrounding normal mucosa in seven cases. Immunohistochemical analysis using a polyclonal antibody supported these findings, with sFRP1 expression reduced in many of the adenoma samples examined. sFRP1 staining in normal mucosa adjacent to the dysplastic tissue was also reduced compared with the normal controls, suggesting that sFRP1 expression may be suppressed in a field of mucosa rather than in individual cells. This study identifies sFRP1 inactivation at the premalignant stage of colorectal cancer development, indicating that these pathways may be useful targets for chemoprevention strategies in this common solid tumour

    Pharmacogenetics Meets Metabolomics: Discovery of Tryptophan as a New Endogenous OCT2 Substrate Related to Metformin Disposition

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    Genetic polymorphisms of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), encoded by SLC22A2, have been investigated in association with metformin disposition. A functional decrease in transport function has been shown to be associated with the OCT2 variants. Using metabolomics, our study aims at a comprehensive monitoring of primary metabolite changes in order to understand biochemical alteration associated with OCT2 polymorphisms and discovery of potential endogenous metabolites related to the genetic variation of OCT2. Using GC-TOF MS based metabolite profiling, clear clustering of samples was observed in Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, showing that metabolic profiles were linked to the genetic variants of OCT2. Tryptophan and uridine presented the most significant alteration in SLC22A2-808TT homozygous and the SLC22A2-808G>T heterozygous variants relative to the reference. Particularly tryptophan showed gene-dose effects of transporter activity according to OCT2 genotypes and the greatest linear association with the pharmacokinetic parameters (Clrenal, Clsec, Cl/F/kg, and Vd/F/kg) of metformin. An inhibition assay demonstrated the inhibitory effect of tryptophan on the uptake of 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyrinidium in a concentration dependent manner and subsequent uptake experiment revealed differential tryptophan-uptake rate in the oocytes expressing OCT2 reference and variant (808G>T). Our results collectively indicate tryptophan can serve as one of the endogenous substrate for the OCT2 as well as a biomarker candidate indicating the variability of the transport activity of OCT2

    Studies of new Higgs boson interactions through nonresonant HH production in the b¯bγγ fnal state in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for nonresonant Higgs boson pair production in the b ¯bγγ fnal state is performed using 140 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This analysis supersedes and expands upon the previous nonresonant ATLAS results in this fnal state based on the same data sample. The analysis strategy is optimised to probe anomalous values not only of the Higgs (H) boson self-coupling modifer κλ but also of the quartic HHV V (V = W, Z) coupling modifer κ2V . No signifcant excess above the expected background from Standard Model processes is observed. An observed upper limit µHH < 4.0 is set at 95% confdence level on the Higgs boson pair production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. The 95% confdence intervals for the coupling modifers are −1.4 < κλ < 6.9 and −0.5 < κ2V < 2.7, assuming all other Higgs boson couplings except the one under study are fxed to the Standard Model predictions. The results are interpreted in the Standard Model efective feld theory and Higgs efective feld theory frameworks in terms of constraints on the couplings of anomalous Higgs boson (self-)interactions

    A search for the dimuon decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS detector