1,956 research outputs found

    Prosocial and antisocial children's perceptions of peers' motives for prosocial behaviours

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    This study investigated whether peer-nominated prosocial and antisocial children have different perceptions of the motives underlying peers' prosocial actions. Eighty-seven children, aged 10-12 years old, completed peer-nomination measures of social behaviour. On the basis of numbers of social nominations received, a subsample of 51 children (32 who were peer-nominated as 'prosocial', and 18 who were peer-nominated as 'antisocial') then recorded their perceptions of peers' motives for prosocial behaviours. Expressed motives were categorized predominantly into three categories, coinciding with Turiel's (1978) 'moral', 'conventional', and 'personal domains'. Results indicate that children's social reputation is associated with the extent to which they perceive peers' prosocial motives as 'personal' or 'moral', with more prosocial children attributing moral motives, and more antisocial children attributing personal motives. Although traditionally Turiel's domain theory has been used to understand 'antisocial' children's behaviour, the current findings suggest that 'prosocial' children's behaviour may also be related to domains of judgment

    Income Taxation of Distributions Made by Alaska Native Corporations: An Ambiguity in Need of Clarification

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    In 1971, Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ( ANCSA ) to provide compensation for extinguishing Native land claims in Alaska. ANCSA created a system of village corporations that received money and land as compensation, and are to distribute the compensation to shareholders. The Internal Revenue Service ( IRS ), despite legislative history to the contrary, is now asserting that corporate tax principles apply to the distributions because of ambiguous language contained in ANCSA. This assertion makes distributions to shareholders taxable as dividends to the extent of the corporations\u27 accumulated and current earnings and profits. The IRS stance will result in excessive taxation of the shareholders due to the unique manner in which ANCSA is set up, and due to poorer economic values of the Natives\u27 land bases. The authors argue that Congress should amend ANCSA to relieve the corporations and shareholders of the unintended taxation. They examine ANCSA and its legislative history, and contrast the IRS\u27s letter rulings to show how the IRS interpretation is contrary to the legislative intent. Finally, the authors propose two alternative amendments that would clarify the otherwise coherent ANCSA policy against imposing an income tax on compensation for extinguishing aboriginal land claims, and assure that individual Natives receive the full measure of compensation that Congress intended to convey

    Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets : correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography

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    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets – an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated Kumar et al., 2011); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 um commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 um in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed

    Whole egg consumption and cortical bone in healthy children

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    Eggs contain bioactive compounds thought to benefit pediatric bone. This cross-sectional study shows a positive link between childhood egg intake and radius cortical bone. If randomized trials confirm our findings, incorporating eggs into children's diets could have a significant impact in preventing childhood fractures and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: This study examined the relationships between egg consumption and cortical bone in children. METHODS: The cross-sectional study design included 294 9-13-year-old black and white males and females. Three-day diet records determined daily egg consumption. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measured radius and tibia cortical bone. Body composition and biomarkers of bone turnover were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Egg intake was positively correlated with radius and tibia cortical bone mineral content (Ct.BMC), total bone area, cortical area, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference, and polar strength strain index in unadjusted models (r = 0.144-0.224, all P < 0.050). After adjusting for differences in race, sex, maturation, fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and protein intakes, tibia relationships were nullified; however, egg intake remained positively correlated with radius Ct.BMC (r = 0.138, P = 0.031). Egg intake positively correlated with total body bone mineral density, BMC, and bone area in the unadjusted models only (r = 0.119-0.224; all P < 0.050). After adjusting for covariates, egg intake was a positive predictor of radius FFST (β = 0.113, P < 0.050) and FFST was a positive predictor of Ct.BMC (β = 0.556, P < 0.050) in path analyses. There was a direct influence of egg on radius Ct.BMC (β = 0.099, P = 0.035), even after adjusting for the mediator, FFST (β = 0.137, P = 0.020). Egg intake was positively correlated with osteocalcin in both the unadjusted (P = 0.005) and adjusted (P = 0.049) models. CONCLUSION: If the positive influence of eggs on Ct.BMC observed in this study is confirmed through future randomized controlled trials, whole eggs may represent a viable strategy to promote pediatric bone development and prevent fractures

    Inconsistency of threat level in soft armour standards, correlation of experimental tests to bullet X-ray 3D images

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    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile that is to be defeated. Typically, for certification, consistency of bullet geometry is assumed. Therefore, practical variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets – an approach which rules out any subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method was demonstrated in [1]. Now, the authors apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response to jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM 11) was selected to analyse both intra and inter bullet variations using an image based analysis method to map the jacket thickness and measure the centre of gravity. Thickness variations of the order of 200μm were found commonly across all the bullets along the length and an angular variation of up to 50μm was found in a few bullets. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate and re-scanned. The results of the experiments are shown and compared to the un-deformed bullet jacket thickness variations. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important data for numerical model correlation and development

    A cellular automaton model of crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Cellulose from plant biomass is an abundant, renewable material which could be a major feedstock for low emissions transport fuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Cellulase enzymes that break down cellulose into fermentable sugars are composed of different types - cellobiohydrolases I and II, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase - with separate functions. They form a complex interacting network between themselves, soluble hydrolysis product molecules, solution and solid phase substrates and inhibitors. There have been many models proposed for enzymatic saccharification however none have yet employed a cellular automaton approach, which allows important phenomena, such as enzyme crowding on the surface of solid substrates, denaturation and substrate inhibition, to be considered in the model.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The Cellulase 4D model was developed <it>de novo </it>taking into account the size and composition of the substrate and surface-acting enzymes were ascribed behaviors based on their movements, catalytic activities and rates, affinity for, and potential for crowding of, the cellulose surface, substrates and inhibitors, and denaturation rates. A basic case modeled on literature-derived parameters obtained from <it>Trichoderma reesei </it>cellulases resulted in cellulose hydrolysis curves that closely matched curves obtained from published experimental data. Scenarios were tested in the model, which included variation of enzyme loadings, adsorption strengths of surface acting enzymes and reaction periods, and the effect on saccharide production over time was assessed. The model simulations indicated an optimal enzyme loading of between 0.5 and 2 of the base case concentrations where a balance was obtained between enzyme crowding on the cellulose crystal, and that the affinities of enzymes for the cellulose surface had a large effect on cellulose hydrolysis. In addition, improvements to the cellobiohydrolase I activity period substantially improved overall glucose production.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Cellulase 4D simulates the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose by surface and solution phase-acting enzymes and accounts for complex phenomena that have previously not been included in cellulose hydrolysis models. The model is intended as a tool for industry, researchers and educators alike to explore options for enzyme engineering and process development and to test hypotheses regarding cellulase mechanisms.</p

    Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: Understanding the U.S. Epidemic

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    Childhood obesity is the latest U.S. epidemic to come to the attention of the public health community. According to numerous recent studies, in the last 20 years, obesity rates have doubled for children and tripled for adolescents. In addition, for children aged 2- 17, studies have reported an increase in the average weight. Statistics indicate that the risk of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents is directly related to minority status and poverty. The reasons for these increases are still under investigation. Causes of obesity may include: genetics/family history, soft drink consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and fast food consumption. The detrimental effects on young people run the gamut from physiological effects (e.g. type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arthritic problems) to psychological effects (e.g. low self esteem, depression). Even more concerning is the potential for a decreased life span in this population at a time when technology and advanced health care techniques have the capacity to improve the quality oflife and increase longevity. Strategies for treatment and prevention are still being tested in an attempt to halt the epidemic. However, research on strategies for preventing and treating overweight in children has produced inconclusive results. In fact, the majority of treatment studies involving diet and exercise found no differences between treatment and control groups. Prevention research has focused on both primary and secondary prevention techniques which include promoting: breastfeeding, increased physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviors, increased fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, and reduced portion sizes none of which have been shown to have unequivocal success. For further progress to be made in stemming the tide of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity, policies need to be implemented that address the need for scientific data to identifY effective treatment and prevention strategies. However, it is unlikely that these policies will be enacted along with the funding necessary to address these research needs until childhood obesity is a high priority on the public agenda. This paper reviews the current literature on the problem, causes, health outcomes, treatment, and prevention strategies associated with childhood overweight and obesity along with presenting a study ofU.S. population data, and a summary of policy issues related to the epidemic.Master of Public Healt

    Kerry Mills Barn Dance / words by Kerry Mills

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    Cover: drawing of Caucasian couples dancing in a barn; Publisher: F. A. Mills (New York)https://egrove.olemiss.edu/sharris_b/1090/thumbnail.jp

    Serious limitations of the QTL/Microarray approach for QTL gene discovery

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>It has been proposed that the use of gene expression microarrays in nonrecombinant parental or congenic strains can accelerate the process of isolating individual genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, the effectiveness of this approach has not been assessed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Thirty-seven studies that have implemented the QTL/microarray approach in rodents were reviewed. About 30% of studies showed enrichment for QTL candidates, mostly in comparisons<b/> between congenic and background strains. Three studies led to the identification of an underlying <it>QTL </it>gene. To complement the literature results, a microarray experiment was performed using three mouse congenic strains isolating the effects of at least 25 biometric QTL. Results show that genes in the congenic donor regions were preferentially selected. However, within donor regions, the distribution of differentially expressed genes was homogeneous once gene density was accounted for. Genes within identical-by-descent (IBD) regions were less likely to be differentially expressed in chromosome 2, but not in chromosomes 11 and 17. Furthermore, expression of <it>QTL </it>regulated in <it>cis </it>(<it>cis </it>eQTL) showed higher expression in the background genotype, which was partially explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The literature shows limited successes from the QTL/microarray approach to identify <it>QTL </it>genes. Our own results from microarray profiling of three congenic strains revealed a strong tendency to select <it>cis-</it>eQTL over <it>trans-</it>eQTL. IBD regions had little effect on rate of differential expression, and we provide several reasons why IBD should not be used to discard eQTL candidates. In addition, mismatch probes produced false <it>cis-</it>eQTL that could not be completely removed with the current strains genotypes and low probe density microarrays. The reviewed studies did not account for lack of coverage from the platforms used and therefore removed genes that were not tested. Together, our results explain the tendency to report QTL candidates as differentially expressed and indicate that the utility of the QTL/microarray as currently implemented is limited. Alternatives are proposed that make use of microarray data from multiple experiments to overcome the outlined limitations.</p
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