547 research outputs found

    Fabrication of mirror templates in silica with micron-sized radii of curvature

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    We present the fabrication of exceptionally small-radius concave microoptics on fused silica substrates using CO2 laser ablation and subsequent reactive ion etching. The protocol yields on-axis near-Gaussian depressions with radius of curvature ≲5\lesssim5 microns at shallow depth and low surface roughness of 2 angstroms. This geometry is appealing for cavity quantum electrodynamics where small mode volumes and low scattering losses are desired. We study the optical performance of the structure within a tunable Fabry-Perot type microcavity, demonstrate near-coating-limited loss rates (F = 25,000) and small focal lengths consistent with their geometrical dimensions.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Spin-Polarized Electrons in Monolayer MoS2_2

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    The optical susceptibility is a local, minimally-invasive and spin-selective probe of the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas. We apply this probe to a gated monolayer of MoS2_2. We demonstrate that the electrons are spin polarized. Of the four available bands, only two are occupied. These two bands have the same spin but different valley quantum numbers. We argue that strong Coulomb interactions are a key aspect of this spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Bohr radius is so small that even electrons located far apart in phase space interact, facilitating exchange couplings to align the spins

    Deterministic enhancement of coherent photon generation from a nitrogen-vacancy center in ultrapure diamond

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    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has an optically addressable, highly coherent spin. However, an NV center even in high quality single-crystalline material is a very poor source of single photons: extraction out of the high-index diamond is inefficient, the emission of coherent photons represents just a few per cent of the total emission, and the decay time is large. In principle, all three problems can be addressed with a resonant microcavity. In practice, it has proved difficult to implement this concept: photonic engineering hinges on nano-fabrication yet it is notoriously difficult to process diamond without degrading the NV centers. We present here a microcavity scheme which uses minimally processed diamond, thereby preserving the high quality of the starting material, and a tunable microcavity platform. We demonstrate a clear change in the lifetime for multiple individual NV centers on tuning both the cavity frequency and anti-node position, a Purcell effect. The overall Purcell factor FP=2.0F_{\rm P}=2.0 translates to a Purcell factor for the zero phonon line (ZPL) of FPZPL∼30F_{\rm P}^{\rm ZPL}\sim30 and an increase in the ZPL emission probability from ∼3%\sim 3 \% to ∼46%\sim 46 \%. By making a step-change in the NV's optical properties in a deterministic way, these results pave the way for much enhanced spin-photon and spin-spin entanglement rates.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    A catchment scale assessment of patterns and controls of historic 2D river planform adjustment

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    The supply, transfer and deposition of sediment from channel headwaters to lowland sinks, is a fundamental process governing upland catchment geomorphology, and can begin to be understood by quantifying 2D river planform adjustments over time. This paper presents a catchment scale methodology to quantify historic patterns of 2D channel planform adjustment and considers geomorphic controls on 2D river stability. The methodology is applied to 18 rivers (total length = 24 km) in the upland headwaters of the previously glaciated Wasdale catchment (45 km2), Lake District, northwest England. Planform adjustments were mapped from historic maps and air photographs over six contiguous time windows covering the last 150 yr. A total of 1048 adjustment and stable reaches were mapped. Over the full period of analysis (1860–2010) 32% (8 km) of the channels studied were adjusting. Contrasts were identified between the geomorphic characteristics (slope, catchment area, unit specific stream power, channel width and valley bottom width) of adjusting and stable reaches. The majority of adjustments mapped were observed in third and fourth order channels in the floodplain valley transfer zone, where the channels were laterally unconfined (mean valley bottom widths of 230 ± 180 m), with low sediment continuity. In contrast, lower order channels were typically confined (mean valley bottom widths of 31 ± 43 m) and showed relative 2D lateral stability. Hence, valley bottom width was found to be important in determining the available space for rivers to adjust. Over the full period of analysis 38% of planform adjustments involved combined processes, for example, as bar and bend adjustments. The study demonstrates the importance of stream network hierarchy in determining spatial patterns of historic planform adjustments at the catchment scale. The methodology developed provides a quantitative assessment of planform adjustment patterns and geomorphic controls, which is needed to support the prioritisation of future river management and restoration

    Voltage-Controlled Optics of a Quantum Dot

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    We show how the optical properties of a single semiconductor quantum dot can be controlled with a small dc voltage applied to a gate electrode. We find that the transmission spectrum of the neutral exciton exhibits two narrow lines with ∼2\sim 2 μ\mueV linewidth. The splitting into two linearly polarized components arises through an exchange interaction within the exciton. The exchange interaction can be turned off by choosing a gate voltage where the dot is occupied with an additional electron. Saturation spectroscopy demonstrates that the neutral exciton behaves as a two-level system. Our experiments show that the remaining problem for manipulating excitonic quantum states in this system is spectral fluctuation on a μ\mueV energy scale.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures; content as publishe

    Transform-limited single photons from a single quantum dot

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    A semiconductor quantum dot mimics a two-level atom. Performance as a single photon source is limited by decoherence and dephasing of the optical transition. Even with high quality material at low temperature, the optical linewidths are a factor of two larger than the transform-limit. A major contributor to the inhomogeneous linewdith is the nuclear spin noise. We show here that the nuclear spin noise depends on optical excitation, increasing (decreasing) with increasing resonant laser power for the neutral (charged) exciton. Based on this observation, we discover regimes where we demonstrate transform-limited linewidths on both neutral and charged excitons even when the measurement is performed very slowly

    Quantum confined Stark effect in a MoS2_2 monolayer van der Waals heterostructure

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    The optics of dangling-bond-free van der Waals heterostructures containing transition metal dichalcogenides are dominated by excitons. A crucial property of a confined exciton is the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). Here, such a heterostructure is used to probe the QCSE by applying a uniform vertical electric field across a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2_2) monolayer. The photoluminescence emission energies of the neutral and charged excitons shift quadratically with the applied electric field provided the electron density remains constant, demonstrating that the exciton can be polarized. Stark shifts corresponding to about half the homogeneous linewidth were achieved. Neutral and charged exciton polarizabilities of (7.8~\pm~1.0)\times 10^{-10}~\tr{D~m~V}^{-1} and (6.4~\pm~0.9)\times 10^{-10}~\tr{D~m~V}^{-1} at relatively low electron density (8 \times 10^{11}~\tr{cm}^{-2}) have been extracted, respectively. These values are one order of magnitude lower than the previously reported values, but in line with theoretical calculations. The methodology presented here is versatile and can be applied to other semiconducting layered materials as well

    Modeling complex flow structures and drag around a submerged plant of varied posture

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    Although vegetation is present in many rivers, the bulk of past work concerned with modeling the influence of vegetation on flow has considered vegetation to be morphologically simple and has generally neglected the complexity of natural plants. Here we report on a combined flume and numerical model experiment which incorporates time-averaged plant posture, collected through terrestrial laser scanning, into a computational fluid dynamics model to predict flow around a submerged riparian plant. For three depth-limited flow conditions (Reynolds number = 65,000–110,000), plant dynamics were recorded through high-definition video imagery, and the numerical model was validated against flow velocities collected with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The plant morphology shows an 18% reduction in plant height and a 14% increase in plant length, compressing and reducing the volumetric canopy morphology as the Reynolds number increases. Plant shear layer turbulence is dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz type vortices generated through shear instability, the frequency of which is estimated to be between 0.20 and 0.30 Hz, increasing with Reynolds number. These results demonstrate the significant effect that the complex morphology of natural plants has on in-stream drag, and allow a physically determined, species-dependent drag coefficient to be calculated. Given the importance of vegetation in river corridor management, the approach developed here demonstrates the necessity to account for plant motion when calculating vegetative resistance

    Simple atomic quantum memory suitable for semiconductor quantum dot single photons

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    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δf\delta f = 0.66~GHz the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For 50 ns storage time we measure ηe2e50ns=3.4(3)%\eta_{\textrm{e2e}}^{\textrm{50ns}} = 3.4(3)\% \emph{end-to-end efficiency} of the fiber-coupled memory, with an \emph{total intrinsic efficiency} ηint=17(3)%\eta_{\textrm{int}} = 17(3)\%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe2e≈35%\eta_{\textrm{e2e}} \approx 35\%; beyond that increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional readout noise level of 9⋅10−39\cdot 10^{-3} photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27(4)\mu_{1}=0.27(4) photons the signal to noise level would be unity

    Cavity-enhanced Raman scattering for in situ alignment and characterization of solid-state microcavities

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    We report cavity-enhanced Raman scattering from a single-crystal diamond membrane embedded in a highly miniaturized fully-tunable Fabry-P\'{e}rot cavity. The Raman intensity is enhanced 58.8-fold compared to the corresponding confocal measurement. The strong signal amplification results from the Purcell effect. We show that the cavity-enhanced Raman scattering can be harnessed as a narrowband, high-intensity, internal light-source. The Raman process can be triggered in a simple way by using an optical excitation frequency outside the cavity stopband and is independent of the lateral positioning of the cavity mode with respect to the diamond membrane. The strong Raman signal emerging from the cavity output facilitates in situ mode-matching of the cavity mode to single-mode collection optics; it also represents a simple way of measuring the dispersion and spatial intensity-profile of the cavity modes. The optimization of the cavity performance via the strong Raman process is extremely helpful in achieving efficient cavity-outcoupling of the relatively weak emission of single color-centers such as nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond or rare-earth ions in crystalline hosts with low emitter density
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