6,415 research outputs found

    Ordered Self-Assembling of Tetrahedral Oxide Nanocrystals

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    ©1997 The American Physical Society. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.2570DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.2570Self-assembling of size, shape, and phase controlled nanocrystals into superlattices with translational and even orientational ordering is a new approach for engineering nanocrystal materials and devices. High purity tetrahedral nanocrystals of CoO, with edge lengths of 4.4±0.2 nm, were synthesized and separated from Co nanocrystals, using a novel magnetic field phase-selection technique. Self-assembling of the faceted CoO nanocrystals forms ordered superlattices, the structures of which are determined

    Induced Growth of Asymmetric Nanocantilever Arrays on Polar Surfaces

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    ©2003 The American Physical Society. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.185502DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.185502We report that the Zn-terminated ZnO (0001) polar surface is chemically active and the oxygenterminated (0001) polar surface is inert in the growth of nanocantilever arrays. Longer and wider "comblike" nanocantilever arrays are grown from the (0001)-Zn surface, which is suggested to be a self-catalyzed process due to the enrichment of Zn at the growth front. The chemically inactive (0001)-O surface typically does not initiate any growth, but controlling experimental conditions could lead to the growth of shorter and narrower nanocantilevers from the intersections between (0001)-O with (0110) surfaces

    Dual-mode mechanical resonance of individual ZnO nanobelts

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    ©2003 American Institute of Physics. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/82/4806/1DOI:10.1063/1.1587878The mechanical resonance of a single ZnO nanobelt, induced by an alternative electric field, was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Due to the rectangular cross section of the nanobelt, two fundamental resonance modes have been observed corresponding to two orthogonal transverse vibration directions, showing the versatile applications of nanobelts as nanocantilevers and nanoresonators. The bending modulus of the ZnO nanobelts was measured to be ~52 GPa and the damping time constant of the resonance in a vacuum of 5×10–8 Torr was ~1.2 ms and quality factor Q = 500

    Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts

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    ©2002 American Institute of Physics. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: : http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/81/1869/1DOI:10.1063/1.1504867Gas sensors have been fabricated using the single-crystalline SnO₂ nanobelts. Electrical characterization showed that the contacts were ohmic and the nanobelts were sensitive to environmental polluting species like CO and NO₂ , as well as to ethanol for breath analyzers and food control applications. The sensor response, defined as the relative variation in conductance due to the introduction of the gas, is 4160% for 250 ppm of ethanol and 21550% for 0.5 ppm NO₂ at 400 °C. The results demonstrate the potential of fabricating nanosized sensors using the integrity of a single nanobelt with a sensitivity at the level of a few ppb

    Electron dynamics in gold and gold–silver alloy nanoparticles: The influence of a nonequilibrium electron distribution and the size dependence of the electron–phonon relaxation

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    ©1999 American Institute of Physics. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aip.org/link/?JCPSA6/111/1255/1DOI: 10.1063/1.479310Electron dynamics in gold nanoparticles with an average diameter between 9 and 48 nm have been studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Following the plasmon bleach recovery after low power excitation indicates that a non-Fermi electron distribution thermalizes by electron–electron relaxation on a time scale of 500 fs to a Fermi distribution. This effect is only observed at low excitation power and when the electron distribution is perturbed by mixing with the intraband transitions within the conduction band (i.e., when the excitation wavelength is 630 or 800 nm). However, exciting the interband transitions at 400 nm does not allow following the early electron thermalization process. Electron thermalization with the lattice of the nanoparticle by electron–phonon interactions occurs within 1.7 ps under these conditions, independent of the excitation wavelength. In agreement with the experiments, simulations of the optical response arising from thermalized and nonthermalized electron distributions show that a non-Fermi electron distribution leads to a less intense bleach of the plasmon absorption. Furthermore, the difference between the response from the two electron distributions is greater for small temperature changes of the electron gas (low excitation powers). No size dependence of the electron thermalization dynamics is observed for gold nanoparticles with diameters between 9 and 48 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that these gold nanoparticles possess defect structures. The effect of this on the electron–phonon relaxation processes is discussed. 18 nm gold–silver alloy nanoparticles with a gold mole fraction of 0.8 are compared to 15 nm gold nanoparticles. While mixing silver leads to a blue-shift of the plasmon absorption in the ground-state absorption spectrum, no difference is observed in the femtosecond dynamics of the system

    Plasmon excitations in graphitic carbon spheres

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    ©1998 The American Physical Society. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.57.15599DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.15599Electron energy loss spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope has recently been used with success to characterize the electronic properties of closed cage nanometer-size graphitic particles. In the plasmon region, the experimental data reveal interesting size-dependent variations, which are not yet fully understood. The difficulties encountered in the interpretation of the spectra are principally due to the lack of a complete theoretical treatment of the anisotropic dielectric response in nanometer-size particles. In order to obtain a better understanding of the experimental data we propose a model based on nonrelativistic local dielectric response theory for electrons penetrating through a nested concentric-shell fullerene or the so-called ‘‘carbon onion.’’ The anisotropy of the electronic properties of the sphere is taken into account via the frequency-dependent dielectric tensor of graphite. The model can be applied to simulate electron energy loss spectra as well as line scans through energy filtered images and allows thus a direct comparison to experimental data

    Collective oscillations in a single-wall carbon nanotube excited by fast electrons

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    ©2001 The American Physical Society. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.64.115424DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.115424Electron energy loss spectroscopy is a well adapted tool for the investigation of the valence excitations of individual nanometer-size particles. The interpretation of the loss spectra of such small particles, however, relies in most cases on a quantitative comparison with simulated excitation probabilities. Here we present a formalism developed for the interpretation of the energy loss data of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on the hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitations by high-energy electrons. The nanotubes are modeled as a two-dimensional electron gas confined on the circumference of a cylinder. The plasmon excitation probabilities, directly comparable to measurements, are discussed for various parameters

    Plasmon excitations in carbon onions: Model vs. measurements

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    ©1998 American Institute of PhysicsNon-relativistic local dielectric response theory has proven successful in the interpretation of Electron Energy Loss data of nanometer-size isotropic particles of different geometries. In previous work, we have adapted this model to take into account anisotropy as encountered in the case of carbon onions. We have shown that this anisotropy needs to be taken into account since important deviations with respect to an isotropic model can be observed. In this contribution, we report on the first energy filtered images of carbon onions and compare intensity profiles across the spheres to our calculations

    In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage

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    ©2002 American Institute of Physics. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/80/856/1DOI:10.1063/1.1446994Field emission of individual carbon nanotubes was observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. A fluctuation in emission current was due to a variation in distance between the nanotube tip and the counter electrode owing to a "head-shaking" effect of the nanotube during field emission. Strong field-induced structural damage of a nanotube occurs in two ways: a piece-by-piece and segment-by-segment pilling process of the graphitic layers, and a concentrical layer-by-layer stripping process. The former is believed owing to a strong electrostatic force, and the latter is likely due to heating produced by emission current that flowed through the most outer graphitic layers

    Local texture and percolative paths for long-range conduction in high critical current density TlBa₂Ca₂Cu₃O₈₊ₓ deposits

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    ©1994 American Institute of Physics. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/64/106/1DOI:10.1063/1.110908A possible microstructural origin of the high critical current densities which have been obtained in c-axis-aligned, polycrystalline TlBa₂Ca₂Cu₃O₈₊ₓdeposits has been identified. The results of x-ray diffraction determinations of basal plane texture of Tl-1223 deposits prepared by spray pyrolysis are observed to depend on the size of the x-ray beam. Furthermore, most grain boundaries were found from transmission electron microscopy to have small misorientation angles. It is concluded that although overall the basal plane orientations are nearly random, there is a high degree of local texture indicative of colonies of similarly oriented grains. The spread in a-axis orientation within a colony is ~10°–15°. Intercolony conduction, it is suggested, may be enhanced by a percolative network of small-angle grain boundaries at colony interfaces
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