491 research outputs found

    Research on Environmental Regeneration Evaluation System and Design of Industrial Heritage from the Perspective of City-Industry Integration

    Get PDF
    As China gradually enters the post-industrial era, the problem of industrial heritage has become an important issue in recent years. Taking industrial heritage as the research object, city-industry integration as the means, regeneration design as the goal, and Xi\u27an Liucunbu Petrochemical Plant as the carrier, an evaluation system for the industrial heritage of Xi\u27an Liucunbu Petrochemical Plant was established by Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process, and the regeneration design of industrial heritage was carried out according to the evaluation system. The results were as follows: (1) the positioning strategy of regeneration evaluation system of Xi\u27an Liucunbu Petrochemical Plant should be "transformation and utilization" through calculation; (2) the transformation value of tank farm, process plant area and build-up area was determined by weight value, and the corresponding design activities that had certain rationality were carried out, which reduced design positioning errors caused by subjectivity; (3) the construction of a new small-town design strategy system integrating "innovative and entrepreneurial manufacturing factory, modern logistics factory, public facility supporting area and petrochemical plant ruins park" could reasonably solve the problem of industrial heritage in the Xixian New Area of Shaanxi Province, China. Therefore, an evaluation system should be first established for the research of industrial heritage, which will guide the design practice, and the industrial heritage of this plot is further designed based on the national upper-level planning

    Linking Research to Educational Policy and Practice: What Kind of Relationships in How (de)Centralized a Context?

    Get PDF
    There have been debates on two issues related to the process of improving educational quality. The first concerns the alternative models for the relationship between researchers and policymakers/practitioners in efforts in efforts to link research and policy/practice. The second involves arguments about merits of centralized, linear versus decentralized, iterative strategies for reforming education. In this chapter, we summarize the issues raised in these debates and then explore them using illustrations drawn from documentation research of a USAID-funded project, Improving Educational Quality (IEQ), which operated in Ghana, Guatemala and Mali during the years from 1992 to 1996

    Fitness of Play: A Prototype for a Holistic Activity Space at Toronto’s Riverdale Park

    Get PDF
    The value of personal well-being and execution of fitness varies between individuals as the constant transformation of societal ideologies around fitness continually impact the macro perception. This in turn leaves the notion of fitness to lack stability and security. With the influence of visually stimulating exchanges through virtual interactions in the contemporary world, the body becomes a means of public expression and social identity that places a priority on certain physical and aesthetic conditions of the human body, rather than their degree of health, uniqueness and ability. With such backdrop, the contemporary notion of fitness that encapsulates ideas around a socially constructed ‘ideal’ becomes the motivational drive of physical exercise for many. The body-obsessive fitness facilities catered towards a group at large reinforces these socially constructed values as it becomes the location for the production of the ill-defined ‘ideal’ bodies. The excessive mechanical rigidity and spatial linearity of the fitness floor plans generates a mechanical notion of strength and power; gym equipment and machines that limit the amount of self-induced movements produce robotic and mindless movements; all of which emanate an intimidating and isolating milieu that dismisses the importance of emotional well-being, playful social interactions and a synergy of the mind and body. The first portion of this thesis examines the fluid nature of fitness culture and the effect of technology and media on promulgating ideas around fitness, as well as its subsequent impact on the socio-spatial realm of fitness facilities and its users. The second portion of this thesis explores the values and elements of play while referring to various built precedents that physically and psychologically constitutes a playful environment in favour of reimagining the relationship between exercise and play. Finally, the third portion of this thesis introduces a speculative proposal located at Toronto’s Riverdale Park which redefines the contemporary act of exercise by providing an all-inclusive play-scape rather than imposing rigid exercises found at a gym. The proposed environment utilizes notions of play to penetrate an individual’s preconceived notions of fitness to provoke changes in understanding what it means to be healthy and fit, and reclaim the connection of the mind and body, to nature, to play, and to others

    Mécanismes de sécrétion d'ATP et d'exposition de la calréticuline au cours d'une chimiothérapie immunogÚne

    Get PDF
    Cytotoxic anti-neoplastic agents were considered for a long time to mediate their therapeutic effects via their capacity to directly kill malignant cells. Nevertheless, this high cytotoxicity is non-targeted and will eventually diminish immune cells. During the last years, it has been shown that radiotherapy and some anticancer agents, such as anthracyclines and oxaliplatin, can stimulate actively anti-tumor immune responses. In fact, they can induce an immunogenic type of apoptosis, which we termed immunogenic cell death (ICD). Thereby, dying cells can act as therapeutic vaccine against residual cancer cells that overcame the initial treatment.ICD is characterized by three major hallmarks: a pre-mortem stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which triggers the translocation of the ER chaperone protein called calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface, the secretion of ATP from apoptotic cells, which acts as a signal for the recruitment of dendritic cells and for the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via its receptor P2RX7, and the release of HMGB1 into the extracellular space, allowing it to interact with TLR4 and thus stimulate the antigen-presenting functions of the DCs.The first part of my work focused on the precise molecular mechanisms by which ATP is actively secreted during ICD. Using a large panel of techniques, including chemical compounds screens and monitoring the subcellular localization of ATP, we showed that following treatment of various tumor cells with ICD inducers, ATP is redistributed from lysosomes to autolysosomes and the lysosomal protein LAMP1 is required for active ATP secretion. We also showed that Rho and pannexin 1 (PANX1) are indispensable for efficient ATP release in response to ICD inducers. Surprisingly, we observed an unexpected link between PANX1 and the exposure of LAMP1 at the cell surface. These results will help to understand the mechanisms necessary for ATP secretion during ICD.In the second part of this work we further studied the surface exposure of CRT during ICD. We observed that mitoxantrone (MTX), which belongs to the group of anthracyclines, can induce a peripheral relocalisation of CRT, both in human cells and yeast cells. In addition, we showed that pheromones can act as a physiological inducer of CRT translocation in yeast. Focused siRNA screening combined with transcriptome analyses revealed that human CXCL8 (also called interleukin-8) and its mouse ortholog Cxcl2 play an essential role in the translocation of CRT to the cell surface. Interestingly, MTX-treated human cancer cells displayed an elevated production of CXCL8 in vitro. These results were confirmed in vivo, with MTX treated murine tumors, which also displayed elevated Cxcl2 levels. The MTX-induced CRT exposure was significantly reduced when we performed a knockdown of CXCL8/Cxcl2 receptors. Altogether, these results showed the importance of chemokine signaling circuitries in immunogenic CRT exposure.This work allows for the detailed understanding of the mechanisms of ICD and might thus be useful for further targeted drug development.Pendant trĂšs longtemps, les traitements contre les cancers se sont basĂ©s sur la cytotoxicitĂ© des chimiothĂ©rapies, sur leur capacitĂ© Ă  tuer directement les cellules malignes ou Ă  induire leur senescence. Mais cette cytotoxicitĂ© accrue et non ciblĂ©e a Ă©galement pour effet de tuer les cellules du systĂšme immunitaire du patient. Cependant, il a Ă©tĂ© montrĂ© que la radiothĂ©rapie, les anthracyclines ainsi que l’oxaliplatine Ă©taient capables d’induire une apoptose dĂ©crite comme Ă©tant une mort cellulaire immunogĂšne. De ce fait, les cellules tumorales mourantes agiront comme vaccin thĂ©rapeutique.La mort cellulaire immunogĂšne se caractĂ©rise par trois grands marqueurs : un stress du rĂ©ticulum endoplasmique prĂ©-mortem qui va induire la translocation de la calrĂ©ticuline de la lumiĂšre du rĂ©ticulum endoplasmique vers la surface cellulaire, la libĂ©ration d’ATP dans le milieu extracellulaire permettant le recrutement des cellules dendritiques et l’activation de l’inflammasome NLRP3 via le rĂ©cepteur P2RX7, et enfin la libĂ©ration de la protĂ©ine HMGB1 dans le milieu extracellulaire, qui va aller interagir avec TLR4 Ă  la surface des cellules dendritiques pour stimuler leur fonction prĂ©sentatrice d’antigĂšne. La premiĂšre partie de ce travail a consistĂ© Ă  comprendre les mĂ©canismes molĂ©culaires prĂ©cis par lesquels l’ATP est sĂ©crĂ©tĂ©e activement lors d’une mort cellulaire immunogĂšne. En utilisant une combinaison de techniques impliquant des criblages pharmacologiques, des techniques de monitorage de la localisation intracellulaire de l’ATP entre autres, nous avons montrĂ© qu’aprĂšs un traitement par les inducteurs de la mort immunogĂšne, l’ATP Ă©tait redistribuĂ© des lysosomes aux autolysosomes et que sa sĂ©crĂ©tion requiert la protĂ©ine lysosomale LAMP1. Nous avons Ă©galement montrĂ© qu’il existait d’autres voies de libĂ©ration d’ATP telles que la voie de signalisation Rho, et Ă©galement l’ouverture des hĂ©micanaux pannexine 1 (PANX1). De façon surprenante, nous avons observĂ© une implication de PANX1 dans la translocation de LAMP1 Ă  la surface cellulaire. Ces rĂ©sultats ont permis de comprendre un peu plus prĂ©cisĂ©ment les mĂ©canismes de sĂ©crĂ©tion d’ATP dans la mort cellulaire immunogĂšne, mettant en Ă©vidence l’importance de l’exocytose lysosomale caspases dĂ©pendante et PANX1 dĂ©pendante.La seconde partie de ce travail s’est portĂ©e sur l’étude d’une autre caractĂ©ristique de la mort cellulaire immunogĂšne, Ă  savoir l’exposition de la calrĂ©ticuline Ă  la surface cellulaire. En partant du constat qu’aprĂšs un traitement par la mitoxantrone, la calrĂ©ticuline Ă©tait relocalisĂ©e en pĂ©riphĂ©rie Ă  la fois dans les cellules humaines et les cellules de levure, il a Ă©tĂ© suggĂ©rĂ© que la voie d’exposition de la calrĂ©ticuline Ă©tait conservĂ©e phylogĂ©nĂ©tiquement. Nous avons montrĂ© que les phĂ©romones pouvaient agir comme inducteurs physiologiques de l’exposition de la calrĂ©ticuline dans les cellules de levure. Un criblage d’ARN interfĂ©rant et des analyses de transcriptome nous ont permis de montrĂ© que les chimiokines, en particulier CXCL8 chez l’humain (appelĂ© Ă©galement interleukine-8) et son orthologue Cxcl2 chez la souris Ă©taient impliquĂ©es dans la translocation de la calrĂ©ticuline Ă  la surface cellulaire. En traitant les cellules cancĂ©reuses par la mitoxantrone, nous observons une production de CXCL8 par les cellules cancĂ©reuses humaines in vitro et de Cxcl2 par les cellules cancĂ©reuses murines in vivo. Un « knockdown » des rĂ©cepteurs pour CXCL8/Cxcl2 rĂ©duit de maniĂšre significative l’exposition de la calrĂ©ticuline Ă  la surface cellulaire. Ces rĂ©sultats ont donc montrĂ© l’importance des chimiokines dans la voie d’exposition de la calrĂ©ticuline.L’ensemble de ce travail a permis de comprendre plus en dĂ©tails deux des trois grandes caractĂ©ristiques de la mort cellulaire immunogĂšne

    Collection of Papers on Iranian Studies in China. Vol III, Peking University Press, 2003.

    Get PDF
    The third volume of this collection consists of 22 papers submitted to the “Third Conference of Iranian Studies in China” held by the Institute of Iranian Culture Studies at Peking University in November 2002. These papers reflect the latest achievements of Chinese scholars in the field of Iranian studies. A common subject of many papers in this collection is the Sino-Iranian cultural relations and influences from the archaeological point of view. New archaeological findings and cultural rel..

    FEW-BODY UNIVERSALITY IN WAVEGUIDE QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS

    Get PDF
    Photons are elementary particles of light, and their interactions in vacuum are extremely weak. The seclusion of photons makes them perfect carriers of classical and quantum information, but also poses difficulties for employing them in quantum information technologies. Recent years have seen tremendous experimental progress in the development of synthetic quantum systems where strong and controllable coupling between single photons is achieved. In a variety of solid-state and optical platforms, propagating photons are coupled with local emitters such as atoms, quantum dots, NV centers, or superconducting qubits. Despite the different nature of the platforms, many of these systems can be described using the same theoretical framework called waveguide quantum electrodynamics (WQED). Dissipation is an inevitable ingredient of many synthetic quantum systems and is a source of error in quantum information applications. Despite its important role in experimental systems, the implications of dissipation in scattering theory havenot been fully explored. Chapter 2 discusses our discovery of the dissipation-induced bound states in WQED systems. The appearance of these bound states is in a one-to-one correspondence with zeros in the single-photon transmission. We also formulate a dissipative version of Levinson's theorem by looking at the relation between the number of bound states and the winding number of the transmission phases. In Chapter 3, we study three-body loss in Rydberg polaritons. Despite past theoretical and experimental studies of the regime with dispersive interaction, the dissipative regime is still mostly unexplored. Using a renormalization group technique to solve the quantum three-body problem, we show how the shape and strength of dissipative three-body forces can be universally enhanced for Rydberg polaritons. We demonstrate how these interactions relate to the transmission through a single-mode cavity, which can be used as a probe of the three-body physics in current experiments. The high level of control of the synthetic quantum systems behind WQED offers many inspirations for theoretical studies. In Chapter 4 of this dissertation, we explore a new direction of scattering theory motivated by the controllability of dispersion relations in synthetic quantum systems. We study single-particle scattering in one dimension when the dispersion relation is E(k)=k^m, where m>= 2 is an integer. For a large class of interactions, we discover that the S-matrix evaluated at an energy E->0 converges to a universal limit that is only dependent on m. We also give a generalization of Levinson's theorem for these more general dispersion relations in WQED systems

    Collection of Papers on Iranian Studies in China. Vol III, Peking University Press, 2003.

    Get PDF
    The third volume of this collection consists of 22 papers submitted to the “Third Conference of Iranian Studies in China” held by the Institute of Iranian Culture Studies at Peking University in November 2002. These papers reflect the latest achievements of Chinese scholars in the field of Iranian studies. A common subject of many papers in this collection is the Sino-Iranian cultural relations and influences from the archaeological point of view. New archaeological findings and cultural rel..

    Analysis of Renewable Energy Research Hotspots and Trends Based on Bibliometric and Patent Survey

    Get PDF
    In recent years, renewable energy has taken on an increasingly important role as a result of the depletion of traditional fossil fuels and the pressure of climate change. Due to the advantages of clean energy production and wide availability, research on renewable energy has increased worldwide. We collected data from the Web of Science and the Derwent Innovations Index to analyze research trends in the field of renewable energy. It was found that the number of research achievements in this field has developed rapidly worldwide since 2005. The United States ranks first in the quantity and quality of literature and fourth in the number of authorized patents. China ranks second and first regarding the quantity of literature and authorized patents, respectively. Biomass energy, wind energy, and solar energy are trending research topics in various stages of development. China has maintained close cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and other countries
    • 

    corecore