105,582 research outputs found

    Ethanol changes Nestin-promoter induced neural stem cells to disturb newborn dendritic spine remodeling in the hippocampus of mice

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    Adolescent binge drinking leads to long-lasting disorders of the adult central nervous system, particularly aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we applied in vivo fluorescent tracing using NestinCreERT2::Rosa26-tdTomato mice and analyzed the endogenous neurogenesis lineage progression of neural stem cells (NSCs) and dendritic spine formation of newborn neurons in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. We found abnormal orientation of tamoxifen-induced tdTomato+ (tdTom+) NSCs in adult mice 2 months after treatment with EtOH (5.0 g/kg, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. EtOH markedly inhibited tdTom+ NSCs activation and hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse dentate gyrus from adolescence to adulthood. EtOH (100 mM) also significantly inhibited the proliferation to 39.2% and differentiation of primary NSCs in vitro. Adult mice exposed to EtOH also exhibited marked inhibitions in dendritic spine growth and newborn neuron maturation in the dentate gyrus, which was partially reversed by voluntary running or inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin-enhancer of zeste homolog 2 pathway. In vivo tracing revealed that EtOH induced abnormal orientation of tdTom+ NSCs and spatial misposition defects of newborn neurons, thus causing the disturbance of hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic spine remodeling in mice

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Summary of leave-one-out sensitivity analysis for the effects on limb function after stroke.

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    Summary of leave-one-out sensitivity analysis for the effects on limb function after stroke.</p

    Impact of lockdown on the growth of children in China aged 3-6 years during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    BackgroundLockdowns in COVID-19 pandemic led to less physical activity and more intake of unhealthy food in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the negative impact of major lockdowns on the growth of children aged 3-6 years during COVID-19 pandemic period.MethodsPhysical examination results in 2019 to 2022 from 5834 eligible children (2972 males and 2862 females) from Southwestern China who were 3 years old in 2019 were retrospectively collected. Height and weight data points were extracted from the results, and percentiles of height (height%), weight (weight%), and BMI (BMI%), and rates of overweight and obesity were calculated and compared between different years during the pandemic.ResultsAfter analyzing the 15404 growth data points from 5834 children, a slowly increasing trend of height% from 2019 to 2022 was observed. Weight%, BMI%, overweight rate, obesity rate, and combined overweight and obesity rate had two peaks in 2020 and 2022 when major lockdowns were adopted and a drop in between (year 2021), except for obesity rate which did not drop in 2021. Similar results were shown after stratification by gender.ConclusionThe lockdowns in COVID-19 pandemic promoted obesity of kindergarten children, but did not show any negative impact on their height growth possibly due to over-nutrition of children during lockdowns. More efforts need to be made to limit the increase of obesity rate in kindergarten children during possible future lockdowns

    An All-Protein Multisensory Highly Bionic Skin

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    To achieve a highly realistic robot, closely mimicking human skin in terms of materials and functionality is essential. This paper presents an all-protein silk fibroin bionic skin (SFBS) that emulates both fast-adapting (FA) and slow-adapting (SA) receptors. The mechanically different silk film and hydrogel, which exhibited skin-like properties, such as stretchability (>140%), elasticity, low modulus (<10 kPa), biocompatibility, and degradability, were prepared through mesoscopic reconstruction engineering to mimic the epidermis and dermis. Our SFBS, incorporating SA and FA sensors, demonstrated a highly sensitive (1.083 kPa–1) static pressure sensing performance (in vitro and in vivo), showed the ability to sense high-frequency vibrations (50–400 Hz), could discriminate materials and sliding, and could even identify the fine morphological differences between objects. As proof of concept, an SFBS-integrated rehabilitation glove was synthesized, which could help stroke patients regain sensory feedback. In conclusion, this work provides a practical approach for developing skin equivalents, prostheses, and smart robots

    Image_2_Causal associations between circulating inflammatory cytokines and blinding eye diseases: a bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis.TIF

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    BackgroundPrevious studies have explored the associations between circulating inflammatory cytokines and blinding eye diseases, including glaucoma, cataract and macular degeneration. However, the causality of these associations remains controversial. This study employs a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causal relationships between 41 circulating inflammatory cytokines and these blinding eye diseases.MethodsSummary data for glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration and 41 circulating inflammatory cytokines were publicly available. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was employed as the main analysis method. Additionally, various sensitivity tests, including MR–Egger regression, weighted median, weight mode, Cochran’s Q test, MR pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier test, and leave-one-out test, were conducted to evaluate sensitivity and stability of results.ResultsThe IVW analysis identified six circulating inflammatory cytokines causally associated with the risk of blinding eye diseases: Monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG) for glaucoma, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, IL-10, and platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGFbb) for cataract, and MIG and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for macular degeneration. However, it is noteworthy that none of these associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction (p −04, 95% CI: 5.198 × 10−07 − 2.129 × 10−01, p = 0.0151).ConclusionThis study highlights the potential roles of specific inflammatory cytokines in the development of glaucoma, cataract and macular degeneration. Moreover, it suggests that VEGF is likely to be involved in cataract development downstream. These findings offer insights for early prevention and novel therapeutic strategies for these blinding eye diseases.</p