287,174 research outputs found

    How Saturated are Absorption Lines in the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 1411+442 ?

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    Recently, convincing evidence was found for extremely large X-ray absorption by column densities >1023cm−2> 10^{23} cm^{-2} in broad absorption line quasars. One consequence of this is that any soft X-ray emission from these QSOs would be the scattered light or leaked light from partially covering absorbing material. A detection of the unabsorbed soft X-ray and absorbed hard X-ray compo nent will allow to determine the total column density as well as the effective covering factor of the absorbing material, which can be hardly obtained from the UV absorption lines. Brinkmann et al. (1999) showed that both the unabsorbed and absorbed components are detected in the nearby very bright broad absorption line quasar PG 1411+442. In this letter, we make a further analysis of the broad band X-ray spectrum and the UV spectrum from HST, and demonstrate that broad absorption lines are completely saturated at the bottom of absorption troughs.Comment: 6 pages, 3 postscript figures. to appear in Astrophy. J. Letter

    Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

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    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large

    Method and apparatus for producing concentric hollow spheres

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    Hollow spheres with precisely concentric inner and outer spherical surfaces are formed by applying vibrations to a nonconcentric hollow sphere while it is at an elevated temperature at which it is fluid or plastic, the vibrations producing internal flows which cause the inner and outer surfaces to become precisely concentric. Concentric spheres can be mass produced by extruding a material such as glass or metal while injecting a stream of gas into the center of the extrusion to form a gas-filled tube. Vibrations are applied to the extruded tube to help break it up into individual bodies of a desired uniform size, the bodies tending to form spherical inner and outer surfaces by reason of surface tension, and the continuing application of vibrations causing these surfaces to become concentric

    System for monitoring physical characteristics of fluids

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    An apparatus and method are described for measuring physical characteristics of fluid, by placing a drop of the fluid in a batch of a second fluid and passing acoustic waves through the bath. The applied frequency of the acoustic waves is varied, to determine the precise value of a frequency at which the drop undergoes resonant oscillations. The resonant frequency indicates the interfacial tension of the drop in the bath, and the interfacial tension can indicate physical properties of the fluid in the drop

    Acoustic suspension system

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    An acoustic levitation system is described, with single acoustic source and a small reflector to stably levitate a small object while the object is processed as by coating or heating it. The system includes a concave acoustic source which has locations on opposite sides of its axis that vibrate towards and away from a focal point to generate a converging acoustic field. A small reflector is located near the focal point, and preferably slightly beyond it, to create an intense acoustic field that stably supports a small object near the reflector. The reflector is located about one-half wavelength from the focal point and is concavely curved to a radius of curvature (L) of about one-half the wavelength, to stably support an object one-quarter wavelength (N) from the reflector

    Acoustic energy shaping

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    A suspended mass is shaped by melting all or a selected portion of the mass and applying acoustic energy in varying amounts to different portions of the mass. In one technique for forming an optical waveguide slug, a mass of oval section is suspended and only a portion along the middle of the cross-section is heated to a largely fluid consistency. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite edges of the oval mass to press the unheated opposite edge portions together so as to form bulges at the middle of the mass. In another technique for forming a ribbon of silicon for constructing solar cells, a cylindrical thread of silicon is drawn from a molten mass of silicon, and acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the molten thread to flatten it into a ribbon

    Acoustic driving of rotor

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    Sound waves are utilized to apply torque to a body in an enclosure of square cross section, by driving two transducers located on perpendicular walls of an enclosure, at the same frequency but at a predetermined phase difference such as 90 degrees. The torque is a first order effect, so that large and controlled rotational speeds can be obtained
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