48 research outputs found

    MILL: Mutual Verification with Large Language Models for Zero-Shot Query Expansion

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    Query expansion is a commonly-used technique in many search systems to better represent users' information needs with additional query terms. Existing studies for this task usually propose to expand a query with retrieved or generated contextual documents. However, both types of methods have clear limitations. For retrieval-based methods, the documents retrieved with the original query might not be accurate enough to reveal the search intent, especially when the query is brief or ambiguous. For generation-based methods, existing models can hardly be trained or aligned on a particular corpus, due to the lack of corpus-specific labeled data. In this paper, we propose a novel Large Language Model (LLM) based mutual verification framework for query expansion, which alleviates the aforementioned limitations. Specifically, we first design a query-query-document generation pipeline, which can effectively leverage the contextual knowledge encoded in LLMs to generate sub-queries and corresponding documents from multiple perspectives. Next, we employ a mutual verification method for both generated and retrieved contextual documents, where 1) retrieved documents are filtered with the external contextual knowledge in generated documents, and 2) generated documents are filtered with the corpus-specific knowledge in retrieved documents. Overall, the proposed method allows retrieved and generated documents to complement each other to finalize a better query expansion. We conduct extensive experiments on three information retrieval datasets, i.e., TREC-DL-2020, TREC-COVID, and MSMARCO. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms other baselines significantly

    A Robust Semantics-based Watermark for Large Language Model against Paraphrasing

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    Large language models (LLMs) have show great ability in various natural language tasks. However, there are concerns that LLMs are possible to be used improperly or even illegally. To prevent the malicious usage of LLMs, detecting LLM-generated text becomes crucial in the deployment of LLM applications. Watermarking is an effective strategy to detect the LLM-generated content by encoding a pre-defined secret watermark to facilitate the detection process. However, the majority of existing watermark methods leverage the simple hashes of precedent tokens to partition vocabulary. Such watermark can be easily eliminated by paraphrase and correspondingly the detection effectiveness will be greatly compromised. Thus, to enhance the robustness against paraphrase, we propose a semantics-based watermark framework SemaMark. It leverages the semantics as an alternative to simple hashes of tokens since the paraphrase will likely preserve the semantic meaning of the sentences. Comprehensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of SemaMark under different paraphrases

    Enhancing Graph Neural Networks with Structure-Based Prompt

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    Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are powerful in learning semantics of graph data. Recently, a new paradigm "pre-train, prompt" has shown promising results in adapting GNNs to various tasks with less supervised data. The success of such paradigm can be attributed to the more consistent objectives of pre-training and task-oriented prompt tuning, where the pre-trained knowledge can be effectively transferred to downstream tasks. However, an overlooked issue of existing studies is that the structure information of graph is usually exploited during pre-training for learning node representations, while neglected in the prompt tuning stage for learning task-specific parameters. To bridge this gap, we propose a novel structure-based prompting method for GNNs, namely SAP, which consistently exploits structure information in both pre-training and prompt tuning stages. In particular, SAP 1) employs a dual-view contrastive learning to align the latent semantic spaces of node attributes and graph structure, and 2) incorporates structure information in prompted graph to elicit more pre-trained knowledge in prompt tuning. We conduct extensive experiments on node classification and graph classification tasks to show the effectiveness of SAP. Moreover, we show that SAP can lead to better performance in more challenging few-shot scenarios on both homophilous and heterophilous graphs

    Self-supervised Heterogeneous Graph Variational Autoencoders

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    Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs), which consist of various types of nodes and edges, have recently demonstrated excellent performance in graph mining. However, most existing heterogeneous graph neural networks (HGNNs) ignore the problems of missing attributes, inaccurate attributes and scarce labels for nodes, which limits their expressiveness. In this paper, we propose a generative self-supervised model SHAVA to address these issues simultaneously. Specifically, SHAVA first initializes all the nodes in the graph with a low-dimensional representation matrix. After that, based on the variational graph autoencoder framework, SHAVA learns both node-level and attribute-level embeddings in the encoder, which can provide fine-grained semantic information to construct node attributes. In the decoder, SHAVA reconstructs both links and attributes. Instead of directly reconstructing raw features for attributed nodes, SHAVA generates the initial low-dimensional representation matrix for all the nodes, based on which raw features of attributed nodes are further reconstructed to leverage accurate attributes. In this way, SHAVA can not only complete informative features for non-attributed nodes, but rectify inaccurate ones for attributed nodes. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to show the superiority of SHAVA in tackling HINs with missing and inaccurate attributes

    A Simple yet Effective Framework for Active Learning to Rank

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    While China has become the biggest online market in the world with around 1 billion internet users, Baidu runs the world largest Chinese search engine serving more than hundreds of millions of daily active users and responding billions queries per day. To handle the diverse query requests from users at web-scale, Baidu has done tremendous efforts in understanding users' queries, retrieve relevant contents from a pool of trillions of webpages, and rank the most relevant webpages on the top of results. Among these components used in Baidu search, learning to rank (LTR) plays a critical role and we need to timely label an extremely large number of queries together with relevant webpages to train and update the online LTR models. To reduce the costs and time consumption of queries/webpages labeling, we study the problem of Activ Learning to Rank (active LTR) that selects unlabeled queries for annotation and training in this work. Specifically, we first investigate the criterion -- Ranking Entropy (RE) characterizing the entropy of relevant webpages under a query produced by a sequence of online LTR models updated by different checkpoints, using a Query-By-Committee (QBC) method. Then, we explore a new criterion namely Prediction Variances (PV) that measures the variance of prediction results for all relevant webpages under a query. Our empirical studies find that RE may favor low-frequency queries from the pool for labeling while PV prioritizing high-frequency queries more. Finally, we combine these two complementary criteria as the sample selection strategies for active learning. Extensive experiments with comparisons to baseline algorithms show that the proposed approach could train LTR models achieving higher Discounted Cumulative Gain (i.e., the relative improvement {\Delta}DCG4=1.38%) with the same budgeted labeling efforts.Comment: This paper is accepted to Machine Intelligence Research and a short version is presented in NeurIPS 2022 Workshop on Human in the Loop Learnin

    Semantic-Enhanced Differentiable Search Index Inspired by Learning Strategies

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    Recently, a new paradigm called Differentiable Search Index (DSI) has been proposed for document retrieval, wherein a sequence-to-sequence model is learned to directly map queries to relevant document identifiers. The key idea behind DSI is to fully parameterize traditional ``index-retrieve'' pipelines within a single neural model, by encoding all documents in the corpus into the model parameters. In essence, DSI needs to resolve two major questions: (1) how to assign an identifier to each document, and (2) how to learn the associations between a document and its identifier. In this work, we propose a Semantic-Enhanced DSI model (SE-DSI) motivated by Learning Strategies in the area of Cognitive Psychology. Our approach advances original DSI in two ways: (1) For the document identifier, we take inspiration from Elaboration Strategies in human learning. Specifically, we assign each document an Elaborative Description based on the query generation technique, which is more meaningful than a string of integers in the original DSI; and (2) For the associations between a document and its identifier, we take inspiration from Rehearsal Strategies in human learning. Specifically, we select fine-grained semantic features from a document as Rehearsal Contents to improve document memorization. Both the offline and online experiments show improved retrieval performance over prevailing baselines.Comment: Accepted by KDD 202

    Graph Enhanced BERT for Query Understanding

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    Query understanding plays a key role in exploring users' search intents and facilitating users to locate their most desired information. However, it is inherently challenging since it needs to capture semantic information from short and ambiguous queries and often requires massive task-specific labeled data. In recent years, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have advanced various natural language processing tasks because they can extract general semantic information from large-scale corpora. Therefore, there are unprecedented opportunities to adopt PLMs for query understanding. However, there is a gap between the goal of query understanding and existing pre-training strategies -- the goal of query understanding is to boost search performance while existing strategies rarely consider this goal. Thus, directly applying them to query understanding is sub-optimal. On the other hand, search logs contain user clicks between queries and urls that provide rich users' search behavioral information on queries beyond their content. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to fill this gap by exploring search logs. In particular, to incorporate search logs into pre-training, we first construct a query graph where nodes are queries and two queries are connected if they lead to clicks on the same urls. Then we propose a novel graph-enhanced pre-training framework, GE-BERT, which can leverage both query content and the query graph. In other words, GE-BERT can capture both the semantic information and the users' search behavioral information of queries. Extensive experiments on various query understanding tasks have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed framework

    CCRank: Parallel Learning to Rank with Cooperative Coevolution

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    We propose CCRank, the first parallel algorithm for learning to rank, targeting simultaneous improvement in learning accuracy and efficiency. CCRank is based on cooperative coevolution (CC), a divide-and-conquer framework that has demonstrated high promise in function optimization for problems with large search space and complex structures. Moreover, CC naturally allows parallelization of sub-solutions to the decomposed subproblems, which can substantially boost learning efficiency. With CCRank, we investigate parallel CC in the context of learning to rank. Extensive experiments on benchmarks in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that CCRank gains in both accuracy and efficiency