501 research outputs found

    Integrating Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS

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    Geography matters in online hotel reviews

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    In resonance with the popularity of user-generated contents (UGC) and the volunteered geographic information (VGI), this study crowdsourced 77,098 hotel reviews of 220 hotels provided by U.S. reviewers in the city of San Francisco, 2002 to 2015. In this exploratory analysis, we have revealed that there is spatial dependence of customer satisfaction at different locations (of hotels), which violates the assumption that ordinary least-square (OLS) is the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE); therefore, spatial model might be required for analysing any antecedents and consequences of such phenomena. These results have implications in marketing and management strategies

    Modeling projected changes of mangrove biomass in different climatic scenarios in the Sunda Banda Seascapes

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    Mangroves are critical in the ecological, economic and social development of coastal rural and urban communities. However, they are under threat by climate change and anthropogenic activities. The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS), Indonesia, is among the worldā€™s richest regions of mangrove biomass and biodiversity. To inform current and future management strategies, it is critical to provide estimates of how mangroves will respond to climate change in this region. Therefore, this paper utilized spatial analysis with model-based climatic indicators (temperature and precipitation) and mangrove distribution maps to estimate a benchmark for the mangrove biomass of the SBS in six scenarios, namely the Last Inter-glacial Period, the current scenario (1950ā€“2000) and all four projected Representative Concentration Pathways in 2070 due to climate change. Despite mangroves gaining more biomass with climate change (the increase in CO2 concentration), this paper highlighted the great proportion of below-ground biomass in mangrove forests. It also showed that the changes in spatial distribution of mangrove biomass became more variable in the context of climate change. As mangroves have been proposed as an essential component of climate change strategies, this study can serve as a baseline for future studies and resource management strategies

    Access to urban parks: Comparing spatial accessibility measures using three GIS-based approaches

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    Urban parks are essential components of urban ecosystems, providing recreation and relaxation places to residents. Measuring the spatial accessibility to urban parks serves as an initial step in urban planning and developing urban development strategies to improve social and environmental justice. This study aims to evaluate measures of spatial accessibility to urban parks by comparing three geographic information systems (GIS)-based approaches, accounting for network complexity, transport modes, distance thresholds, and destination choices. Taking Ipswich City (Australia) and Enschede (the Netherlands) as two testbeds, we examine the spatial patterns of a total of 21 accessibility measures in the two cities and conduct a correlation and principal component analysis to unravel the interrelationship between these measures. The results suggest that among all measures under the three approaches, the selection of distance thresholds and transport modes matter more to accessibility measures than the destination choices. Furthermore, when distance threshold and transport mode are held constant, the network-based and entrance-based methods provide more realistic accessibility measures than other methods. We also discuss the generality of the entrance-based method we propose and suggest ways to choose the most appropriate accessibility measure for use in different contexts

    Urban morphology and traffic congestion: longitudinal evidence from US cities

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    Traffic congestion is an ever-increasing issue across urban environments in the US. One potential mitigation strategy is to improve our understanding of how the geographical patterns of urban land use influence congestion. Unfortunately, there is no consensus regarding if more sprawling or dense urban morphologies help mitigate congestion issues. To potentially clarify the conflicting findings of previous studies, we used a detailed spatial metric-based approach and panel regression to quantify the relationships between urban development patterns and congestion in 98 US urban areas from 2001 to 2011. We found that the abundance and spatial configuration of urban land uses were correlated with traffic congestion. Specifically, high degrees of polycentricity for both high-intensity and low-intensity urban land uses were associated with more congestion, while contiguous residential development was correlated with less congestion. Important distinctions were also observed between different congestion measures, as urban morphology exhibited a more substantial influence on overall congestion than rush-hour congestion. Our findings can potentially inform future land use planning by clarifying which urban morphologies alleviate traffic congestion issues

    Analysis The Influencing Factors of Urban Traffic Flows by Using Emerging Urban Big Data

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    This research applies spatial Durbin model to analyse traffic flow distributions via various factors in the urban areas and traffic flow data. The results show that the overall built environment within a buffer area has more significant impact on urban traffic flow compared to the nearby location within a few meters. Areas with more young and white dwellers are associated with more traffic flows. With the influence of COVID-19, residents prefer to spend their daily life in their local neighborhood rather than having long distance travel. The initial findings from this research provide evidence of developing 20-minute city via active travel for achieving net-zero carbon target

    Measuring polycentric urban development : the importance of accurately determining the ā€˜balanceā€™ between ā€˜centersā€™

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    In recent years, much research has been devoted to developing appropriate analytical frameworks to capture polycentric urban development (PUD). In a recent contribution to this journal, Bartosiewicz and Marcińczak (2020) present what is arguably the most comprehensive, comparative review to date of the degree to which different analytical frameworks produce consistent results. The purpose of this research note is to show why we believe parts of Bartosiewicz and Marcińczak's (2020) findings need nuance and qualification. Our starting point is that a useful comparison between different studies and measurement frameworks needs to consider the relevance of consistency in several key dimensions, two of which are particularly pertinent here: (1) the careful specification of what constitutes a ā€˜centerā€™ in a polycentric urban system, and (2) the identification of the ā€˜balanceā€™ between centers as a measure of the degree of polycentricity. Two brief empirical analyses of the degree of morphological polycentricity in Polish NUTS-3 areas and the Chinese city-regions along the ā€˜Yangtze Economic Beltā€™ are included. Finally, suggestions are provided to facilitate future comparative analyses of PUD

    ā€œProfessionalizationā€ or ā€œProletarianizationā€: Which Concept Defines the Changes in Teachersā€™ Work?

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    AbstractIn many parts of the world, particularly starting from 1980 a set of transformations is being experienced in the field of education. With these transformations while the meaning and content of the education changes, the teachers who are the most basic actors of education field are expected to keep pace with this change process and to be even active agents of this process. Therefore, it is possible to talk about the fact that some significant changes in education, employment and working conditions of teachers have been taking place in recent times. The discussions in literature in regards to efforts to understand and explain the change and transformations experienced in the profession of teaching are usually based on two main approaches. While in the first approach it is claimed that teachers are being ā€œprofessionalizedā€ over time, in the latter approach it is claimed that teachers are not professionals no longer, on the contrary, with the transformation process they are increasingly getting deskilled and hence are being ā€œproletarianizedā€. The aim of this study is that within the axis of profession of teaching and by focusing on theoretical discussions regarding ā€œprofessionalizationā€ and ā€œproletarianizationā€, to establish a theoretical framework to understand the changes experienced in teachersā€™ work

    Simulating the urban spatial structure with spatial interaction: A case study of urban polycentricity under different scenarios

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    Polycentric urban development is gaining momentum in both scholarly research and real-life practice. This brings new demand for planning support systems to simulate and analyse the urban spatial structure in terms of polycentricity under various urban policy scenarios. With the help of emerging urban data, urban simulation techniques, and network science, this study proposes a workflow to simulate the urban spatial structure with spatial interaction as a part of the planning support system. Using Singapore as a case study, this study has explored the resulting urban spatial structure with four employment distribution strategies. The results suggest that planning practices impact urban spatial structure and its spatial interaction by redistributing urban morphological elements, such as employment in this study. Also, our results show that the physical urban spatial structure and spatial interaction are closely related. These results reinforce the role of urban planning practice to achieve a more sustainable and coherent urban built environment. Through this empirical evidence, our workflow exemplifies the potential of the planning support system to help urban planners and governments understand their urban policy regarding urban polycentricity

    Big data for intrametropolitan human movement studies : A case study of bus commuters based on smart card data

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    Unlike the data from traditional sources, there have not been standard ways to validate the quality and reliability of information derived from big data. This article argues that the theory of urban formation can be used to do the validation. In addition, the information derived from big data can be used to verify and even extend existing theories or hypotheses of urban formation. It proposes a general framework regarding how the theory of urban formation can be employed to validate information derived from smart card data and how the validated information can supplement other data to reveal spatial patterns of economic agglomeration or human settlements. Through a case study of Beijing, it demonstrates the usefulness of the framework. Additionally, it utilizes smart card data to delineate characteristics of subcenters defined by bus commuters of Beijing
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