154,663 research outputs found

    A new inflationary Universe scenario with inhomogeneous quantum vacuum

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    We investigate the quantum vacuum and find the fluctuations can lead to the inhomogeneous quantum vacuum. We find that the vacuum fluctuations can significantly influence the cosmological inhomogeneity, which is different from what previously expected. By introducing the modified Green's function, we reach a new inflationary scenario which can explain why the Universe is still expanding without slowing down. We also calculate the tunneling amplitude of the Universe based on the inhomogeneous vacuum. We find that the inhomogeneity can lead to the penetration of the universe over the potential barrier faster than previously thought.Comment: 16 pages, 9 figure

    Landscape and flux for quantifying global stability and dynamics of game theory

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    Game theory has been widely applied to many areas including economics, biology and social sciences. However, it is still challenging to quantify the global stability and global dynamics of the game theory. We developed a landscape and flux framework to quantify the global stability and global dynamics of the game theory. As an example, we investigated the models of three-strategy games: a special replicator-mutator game, the repeated prison dilemma model. In this model, one stable state, two stable states and limit cycle can emerge under different parameters. The repeated Prisoner's Dilemma system has Hopf bifurcation transitions from one stable state to limit cycle state, and then to another one stable state or two stable states, or vice versa. We explored the global stability of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma system and the kinetic paths between the basins of attractor. The paths are irreversible due to the non-zero flux. One can explain the game for PeacePeace and WarWar.Comment: 25 pages, 15 figure