91,412 research outputs found

    Log-Harnack Inequality for Stochastic Burgers Equations and Applications

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    By proving an L2L^2-gradient estimate for the corresponding Galerkin approximations, the log-Harnack inequality is established for the semigroup associated to a class of stochastic Burgers equations. As applications, we derive the strong Feller property of the semigroup, the irreducibility of the solution, the entropy-cost inequality for the adjoint semigroup, and entropy upper bounds of the transition density

    Entanglement in a second order topological insulator on a square lattice

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    In a dd-dimensional topological insulator of order dd, there are zero energy states on its corners which have close relationship with its entanglement behaviors. We studied the bipartite entanglement spectra for different subsystem shapes and found that only when the entanglement boundary has corners matching the lattice, exact zero modes exist in the entanglement spectrum corresponding to the zero energy states caused by the same physical corners. We then considered finite size systems in which case these corner states are coupled together by long range hybridizations to form a multipartite entangled state. We proposed a scheme to calculate the quadripartite entanglement entropy on the square lattice, which is well described by a four-sites toy model and thus provides another way to identify the higher order topological insulators from the multipartite entanglement point of view.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Singular stochastic equations on Hilbert spaces: Harnack inequalities for their transition semigroups

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    We consider stochastic equations in Hilbert spaces with singular drift in the framework of [Da Prato, R\"ockner, PTRF 2002]. We prove a Harnack inequality (in the sense of [Wang, PTRF 1997]) for its transition semigroup and exploit its consequences. In particular, we prove regularizing and ultraboundedness properties of the transition semigroup as well as that the corresponding Kolmogorov operator has at most one infinitesimally invariant measure μ\mu (satisfying some mild integrability conditions). Finally, we prove existence of such a measure μ\mu for non-continuous drifts

    Detecting edge degeneracy in interacting topological insulators through entanglement entropy

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    The existence of degenerate or gapless edge states is a characteristic feature of topological insulators, but is difficult to detect in the presence of interactons. We propose a new method to obtain the degeneracy of the edge states from the perspective of entanglement entropy, which is very useful to identify interacting topological states. Employing the determinant quantum Monte Carlo technique, we investigate the interaction effect on two representative models of fermionic topological insulators in one and two dimensions, respectively. In the two topologically nontrivial phases, the edge degeneracies are reduced by interactions but remain to be nontrivial.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Electronic structure near an impurity and terrace on the surface of a 3-dimensional topological insulator

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    Motivated by recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on surfaces of Bi1x_{1-x}Sbx_{x'}\cite{yazdanistm,gomesstm} and Bi2_2Te3_3,\cite{kaptunikstm,xuestm} we theoretically study the electronic structure of a 3-dimensional (3D) topological insulator in the presence of a local impurity or a domain wall on its surface using a 3D lattice model. While the local density of states (LDOS) oscillates significantly in space at energies above the bulk gap, the oscillation due to the in-gap surface Dirac fermions are very weak. The extracted modulation wave number as a function of energy satisfies the Dirac dispersion for in-gap energies and follows the border of the bulk continuum above the bulk gap. We have also examined analytically the effects of the defects by using a pure Dirac fermion model for the surface states and found that the LDOS decays asymptotically faster at least by a factor of 1/r than that in normal metals, consistent with the results obtained from our lattice model.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure