48 research outputs found

    Youth Awareness Level towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Greater Kuala Lumpur

    Get PDF
    In 2015, the United Nations initiated the Sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address the global changes while ensuring better and sustainable actions for the future. Among Asian countries, Malaysia has also made an effort to integrate the SDGs into its national development plan. In this study, the awareness level of youth from high schools in Greater Kuala Lumpur towards Sustainable Development Goals has been assessed through questionnaires with 60 questions given to 421 respondents. Sufficient levels of feedbacks for the whole population were acquired (Confidence level: 95%, Margin of error: 5%). Five schools were selected and grouped into 3 types: high-performance school (national merit of excellence), cluster school (state level merit of excellence), and daily school (normal achievement). The results of the Spearman Rho correlation showed a significant but weak relationship [r= 0.435] between attitude and practice for all schools. Interestingly, the statistical test showed a negligible relationship between knowledge and attitude, and knowledge and practice, indicating a low attitude to practice SDGs amongst youth although equipped with adequate knowledge. The study also found that high-performance schools showed the highest score for all knowledge, attitude, and practice

    Ganoderma lucidum as a cosmeceutical: antiradical potential and inhibitory effect on hyperpigmentation and skin extracellular matrix degradation enzymes

    Get PDF
    Three different polysaccharide extracts of a wild European source of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum were screened for their free radical-blocking potential, which could strengthen the skin's barrier function, and provide a skin-lightening effect via potential inhibition of tyrosinase. The anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities, which can help to restore skin elasticity and tensile strength, were also evaluated for the three extracts. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the extracts, followed by smaller quantities of proteins, phenols and flavonoids. The glucan fraction represented between 48% and 61% of carbohydrate content in all three extracts. None of the analyzed extracts showed overt toxicity to spontaneously-transformed immortal human keratinocytes (HaCaT) at concentrations up to 2 mg/mL, and displayed superior scavenging ability on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The hot water crude polysaccharide extract (HWCP) and partially purified fraction (HWPP) were found to be effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (LPx), with an almost two-fold increased inhibition of LPx compared with ascorbic acid (EC50 = 1.65 +/- 0.08 mg/mL), a common additive in cosmeceutical formulations and used at mg levels. Among the investigated extracts, HWCP showed the strongest inhibition potential on tyrosinase and skin extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation enzymes. These diverse functionalities indicate that G. lucidum may represent a promising source of natural cosmeceutical ingredients

    Vital Conditions to Remove Pollutants from Synthetic Wastewater Using Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum

    Get PDF
    Mycoremediation, a fungal-based technology, has seen tremendous growth as an effective alternative to treat industrial wastewater due to its ability to oxidise pollutant loadings. Considering the non-toxic properties and high potential degradation performance of Ganoderma lucidum, this research aims to study the performance of a Malaysian G. lucidum strain, the effect of agitation speed, and different carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio concentrations of synthetic wastewater in degrading chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. Different agitation speeds (25 rpm, 50 rpm and 100 rpm) and C/N ratios (C10N1, C13.3N1 and C16.7N1) were chosen as parameters to be analysed in this study. The best degradation of COD and ammonia with a percentage removal in the range of 95% to 100% within 30 h of treatment. ANOVA analysis was done using the response surface methodology to verify the obtained results, and it was found that mycoremediation using 100 rpm agitation provided the best results, removing more than 95% of COD and ammonia from synthetic wastewater. The microscopic analysis also showed that the structure of G. lucidum changed after wastewater treatment. This result proved that the Malaysian G. lucidum strain has a good potential in treating synthetic domestic wastewater, especially with high organic content, as a naturally sustainable bioremediation system

    Antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of sulfated (1,3)-β-D-glucan from the mycelium of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Get PDF
    Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 has a long established role for its therapeutic activities. In this context, much interest has focused on the possible functions of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan (G) produced by these cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor and extracted from their underutilized mycelium. In the existing study, we report on the systematic production of G, and its sulfated derivative (GS). The aim of this study was to investigate the G and its GS from G. lucidum in terms of antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicity spectrum against Human-Prostate-Cell (PN2TA) and Human-Caucasian-Histiocytic-Lymphoma (U937). (1)H NMR for both G and GS compounds showed β-glycosidic linkages and structural similarities when compared with two standards (Laminarin and Fucoidan). The existence of characteristic absorptions at 1,170 and 867 cm(-1) in the FTIR for GS demonstrated the successful sulfation of G. Only GS exhibited antimicrobial activity against a varied range of test bacteria of relevance to foodstuffs and human health. Moreover, both G and GS did not show any cytotoxic effects on PN2TA cells, thus helping demonstrate the safety on these polymers. Also, GS shows 40% antiproliferation against cancerous U937 cells at low concentration (60 µg/mL) applied in this study compared to G (10%). Together, this demonstrates that sulfation clearly improved the solubility and therapeutic activities of G. The water-soluble GS demonstrates the potential multi-functional effects of these materials in foodstuffs

    Total quality index of commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus sapidus in modified atmosphere packaging

    Get PDF
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the strain of oyster mushroom (OM) Pleurotus sapidus cultivated in a local (commercial) farm, and to generate a total quality index (TQI) on the strain using different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) gas mixtures. Design/methodology/approach A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA software to identify the specific strain of P. sapidus grown in a local farm. The effects of MAP on fresh fruiting bodies of the identified strain were determined under three conditions: high carbon dioxide packaging (HCP: 20 per cent CO2, 15 per cent O-2), low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP: 2 per cent CO2, 30 per cent O-2) and high nitrogen packaging (HNP: 85 per cent N-2, 15 per cent O-2). All samples were stored at 4 C-o for up to ten days, and subjected to total phenolic content (TPC), colour retention (CR) and sensory analysis. Quality parameters such as chewiness and odour were used to obtain the TQI. Findings From the phylogenetic analysis, a new strain (P. sapidus strain QDR) with 99 per cent similarity to P. sapidus was identified. Among the three MAP treatments, HCP recorded the highest TPC (2.85 mg GAE/g) and CR (60.36) after ten days, although only its CR was significantly different (p lt 0.05) from the control. Feedback from 30 sensory panellists indicated that both HCP and LCP were generally more effective in retaining the colour-odour of OM. The optimum TQI for HCP was obtained based on the observed parameters, which is useful for the large-scale packaging of OM. Originality/value Scientific evidence has revealed that packaging trend for commercially grown OM affects consumer's acceptance

    Evaluation of a Malaysian soy sauce koji strain Aspergillus oryzae NSK for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production using different native sugars

    Get PDF
    In this study, a selected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich Malaysian strain Aspergillus oryzae NSK was collected from soy sauce koji. The strain was used to explore the effect of using renewable native sugar syrup, sugarcane, nipa, and molasses as fermentable substrates for developing a novel functional GABA soy sauce. We evaluated the strain using the chosen native sugars for 7 days using shake flask fermentation at 30 °C. The results showed optimum GABA concentration was achieved using cane molasses as the fermentable substrate (354.08 mg/L), followed by sugarcane syrup (320.7 mg/L) and nipa syrup (232.07 mg/L). Cane molasses was subsequently utilized as a substrate to determine the most suitable concentration for A. oryzae NSK to enhance GABA production and was determined as 50% g/L of glucose standard cane molasses. Our findings indicate that cane molasses can be used as a GABA-rich ingredient to develop a new starter culture for A. oryzae NSK soy sauce production

    Mushroom β-glucan and polyphenol formulations as natural immunity boosters and balancers: nature of the application

    Get PDF
    Mushrooms are experiencing a kind of renaissance as a part of the contemporary human diet. These valuable organisms are more than food, they fi t in perfectly as a novel market group known as nutra-mycoceuticals. Immune-balancing mushroom dietary fibers and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols are the main focus of the healthcare industry. Wellness and cosmetic companies are increasingly using mushroom extracts rich in these ingredients. This review considers the basic molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of the most commonly used mushroom dietary fibers, β-glucans. The literature data on their bioavailability, metabolic transformations, preclinical and human clinical research, and safety are discussed. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of polyphenol ingredients are also considered. These molecules present great potential in the design of the new immunity balancer formulations according to their widespread structural diversity. Finally, we draw attention to the perspectives of modern trends in mushroom nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations to strengthen and balance immunity

    Analysing dimensions and indicators to design energy education framework in Malaysia using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)

    Get PDF
    In order to progress towards a more sustainable energy future, Malaysia should reduce its reliance on fossil-based energy sources and shifting to green and renewable energy. Therefore, focus on energy education awareness programmes emphasising sustainable behaviours and frameworks are required. These programmes connect with Sustainable Development Goal 7 of the United Nations, which is to provide affordable and clean energy. In this study, dimensions and indicators of a framework for energy education were studied and evaluated in an effort to improve decision making. This study systematic approach comprised a review of relevant literature and consultation with an ad hoc panel of energy education experts via surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. This study also included an analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the framework’s criteria selection, alternative indicators, and priority or weights. The results indicated that the “Aim to minimise climate change” dimension is deemed the most essential criterion for selecting energy education dimension criteria. On the other hand, “National policy makers” is the most essential stakeholder across all parties. It has been determined that the use of analytic hierarchy process to the design of the framework for energy education in Malaysia could help simplifies a systematic decision-making process

    Fruiting-body-base flour from an oyster mushroom – a waste source of antioxidative flour for developing potential functional cookies and steamed-bun

    Get PDF
    In a commercial oyster mushroom farm, fruiting body base (FBB) was not harvested compared to the common cap and stem of the fruiting body parts, and thus remained as waste. In the present study, unused FBB was powdered and subjected to proximate analysis as floured FBB (FFBB). FFBB was found to contain 71.2% carbohydrate, 8.93% moisture, 7.18% fibre, 5.72% ash, 5.57% protein, and 1.4% fat, while raw-FBB (RFBB) contained 7.57% carbohydrate, 84.4% moisture, 5.17% fibre, 5.72% ash, 1.54% protein, and 0.85% fat. The high carbohydrate content of FFBB was subjected to hot-water extraction and yielded 7.40 g of FFBB polysaccharide (FFBBP). Total phenolic content (TPC) of FFBBP contained 1.80 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, exhibiting the reducing activity of 1.74 mM Fe(II)/g by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, and reduced the stable 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate radical forms at IC50 of 25.08 mg/mL, which was comparable with other parts of oyster mushroom species. Different percentages of FFBB mixtures were utilized in the production of cookies (10% and 20%) and steamed buns (10%, 20% and 30%). Thirty-seven panellists were selected for sensory testing, which showed that 10% of FFBB in a steamed bun was more acceptable than 30% of FFBB, while the overall acceptance of cookies with 10% FBB was insignificant (p > 0.05) but 20% FFBB in cookies was significantly different from control (p < 0.05). This study indicates that potential value of FFBB as an economical antioxidative flour in the development of functional foods
    corecore