1,822 research outputs found

    41Ca in tooth enamel. part I: A biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors

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    The detection of 41Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, 41Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable 40Ca. Thus any 41Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural 41Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean 41Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 ¬Ī 0.05) √ó 10-14 in the control samples and increased to 2 √ó 10-14 for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The 41Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that ő≥-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).Fil: Wallner, A.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Universidad de Viena; AustriaFil: Ruhm, W.. Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center For Environmental Health; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Nakamura, N.. Radiation Effects Research Foundation; Jap√≥nFil: Arazi, Andres. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Faestermann, T.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Knie, K.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Maier, H. J.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Korschinek, G.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemani

    Full-scale Investigation of Cooling Shroud and Ejector Nozzle for a Turbojet Engine : Afterburner Installation

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    A full-scale ejector cooling investigation was made on a turbojet engine - afterburner installation in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Ejector performance was studied at primary exhaust-gas temperatures from 2700 degrees to 3400 degrees R (corresponding to ejector temperature ratios from 2.0 to 5.0), primary pressure ratios from 1.79 to 3.4, secondary air flows up to 29 percent of the primary gas flow, and for diameter ratios from 1.08 to 1.42 and spacing ratios from 0.04 to 1.16. In addition, variations were made in the primary exhaust-nozzle area. Ejectors with large diameter ratios permit the attainment of high gas flow ratios, but the jet-thrust losses become prohibitive as the spacing ratio is increased from 0 to 0.16. As the ejector diameter is reduced, the obtainable gas-flow ratio and the thrust loss are reduced. Previous results showing that data obtained at a temperature ratio of 1.0 could not be extrapolated to determine ejector performance at high temperature ratios by the application of the temperature ratio factor to the gas-flow ratios are substantiated by the present investigation

    On-the-fly memory compression for multibody algorithms.

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    Memory and bandwidth demands challenge developers of particle-based codes that have to scale on new architectures, as the growth of concurrency outperforms improvements in memory access facilities, as the memory per core tends to stagnate, and as communication networks cannot increase bandwidth arbitrary. We propose to analyse each particle of such a code to find out whether a hierarchical data representation storing data with reduced precision caps the memory demands without exceeding given error bounds. For admissible candidates, we perform this compression and thus reduce the pressure on the memory subsystem, lower the total memory footprint and reduce the data to be exchanged via MPI. Notably, our analysis and transformation changes the data compression dynamically, i.e. the choice of data format follows the solution characteristics, and it does not require us to alter the core simulation code

    Effect of Compressor-outlet Bleedoff on Turbojet-engine Performance

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    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine the effect of compressor-outlet bleedoff on the performance of an axial-flow turbojet engine equipped with a variable-area exhaust nozzle. Results presented indicate the effect of compressor-outlet bleedoff on performance at altitudes of 25,000 and 40,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.53. Variation of performance with bleedoff flow is indicated for operation with fixed- and variable-area exhaust nozzles. Temperature and pressure losses through the bleedoff ducting system are also discussed

    From Gravitons to Gravity: Myths and Reality

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    There is a general belief, reinforced by statements in standard textbooks, that: (i) one can obtain the full non-linear Einstein's theory of gravity by coupling a massless, spin-2 field habh_{ab} self-consistently to the total energy momentum tensor, including its own; (ii) this procedure is unique and leads to Einstein-Hilbert action and (iii) it only uses standard concepts in Lorentz invariant field theory and does not involve any geometrical assumptions. After providing several reasons why such beliefs are suspect -- and critically re-examining several previous attempts -- we provide a detailed analysis aimed at clarifying the situation. First, we prove that it is \textit{impossible} to obtain the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action, starting from the standard action for gravitons in linear theory and iterating repeatedly. Second, we use the Taylor series expansion of the action for Einstein's theory, to identify the tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab}, to which the graviton field habh_{ab} couples to the lowest order. We show that the second rank tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab} is {\it not} the conventional energy momentum tensor TabT^{ab} of the graviton and provide an explanation for this feature. Third, we construct the full nonlinear Einstein's theory with the source being spin-0 field, spin-1 field or relativistic particles by explicitly coupling the spin-2 field to this second rank tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab} order by order and summing up the infinite series. Finally, we construct the theory obtained by self consistently coupling habh_{ab} to the conventional energy momentum tensor TabT^{ab} order by order and show that this does {\it not} lead to Einstein's theory. (condensed).Comment: revtex; 19 pages; no figure

    Search for supernova-produced 60Fe in a marine sediment

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    An 60Fe peak in a deep-sea FeMn crust has been interpreted as due to the signature left by the ejecta of a supernova explosion close to the solar system 2.8 +/- 0.4 Myr ago [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 171103 (2004)]. To confirm this interpretation with better time resolution and obtain a more direct flux estimate, we measured 60Fe concentrations along a dated marine sediment. We find no 60Fe peak at the expected level from 1.7 to 3.2 Myr ago. However, applying the same chemistry used for the sediment, we confirm the 60Fe signal in the FeMn crust. The cause of the discrepancy is discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    The 63^{63}Ni(n,ő≥\gamma) cross section measured with DANCE

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    The neutron capture cross section of the s-process branch nucleus 63^{63}Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63^{63}Cu and 64^{64}Zn. In order to determine the energy dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4ŌÄ\pi BaF2_2 array DANCE. The (n,ő≥\gamma) cross section of 63^{63}Ni has been determined relative to the well known 197^{197}Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63^{63}Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q-value. Furthermore, the s-process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.Comment: 11 pages, 13 page

    Reality Conditions and Ashtekar Variables: a Different Perspective

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    We give in this paper a modified self-dual action that leads to the SO(3)SO(3)-ADM formalism without having to face the difficult second class constraints present in other approaches (for example if one starts from the Hilbert-Palatini action). We use the new action principle to gain some new insights into the problem of the reality conditions that must be imposed in order to get real formulations from complex general relativity. We derive also a real formulation for Lorentzian general relativity in the Ashtekar phase space by using the modified action presented in the paper.Comment: 22 pages, LATEX, Preprint CGPG-94/10-

    Setting a best practice for determining the EGR rate in hydrogen internal combustion engines

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    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective way to reduce NOx-emissions and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines. Knowledge of the exact amount of EGR is crucial to understand the effects of EGR. As the exhaust gas flow is pulsating and chemically aggressive, the flow rate is typically not measured directly and has to be derived from other quantities. For hydrocarbon fuels, the EGR rate is generally calculated from a molar CO2 balance, but for hydrogen engines this obviously cannot be used as there are no CO2 emissions, and consequently no standard practice has been established. This work considers three methods to calculate the amount of EGR in a hydrogen engine. The first one is based upon a volume balance in the mixing section of exhaust gases and fresh air. The second and third method uses a molar balance of O-2 and H2O respectively in this mixing section. The three methods are developed and tested for their accuracy with an error analysis. Additionally, the methods are applied to an experimental dataset gathered on a single cylinder hydrogen engine. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results confirm the method based on an O-2 molar balance as the most accurate one. The least practical method is the one based on an H2O balance as it requires additional relative humidity sensors and is less accurate than the others
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