28 research outputs found

    DNA methylation markers for oral pre-cancer progression: A critical review.

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    Although oral cancers are generally preceded by a well-established pre-cancerous stage, there is a lack of well-defined clinical and morphological criteria to detect and signal progression from pre-cancer to malignant tumours. We conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic biomarker predicting progression. We identified all relevant human studies published in English prior to 30th April 2015 that examined DNA methylation (%) in oral pre-cancer by searching PubMed, Web-of-Science and Embase databases using combined key-searches. Twenty-one studies (18-cross-sectional; 3-longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion in the review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 156 affected cases. Eligible studies examined promoter region hyper-methylation of tumour suppressor genes in pathways including cell-cycle-control (n=15), DNA-repair (n=7), cell-cycle-signalling (n=4) and apoptosis (n=3). Hyper-methylated loci reported in three or more studies included p16, p14, MGMT and DAPK. Two longitudinal studies reported greater p16 hyper-methylation in pre-cancerous lesions transformed to malignancy compared to lesions that regressed (57-63.6% versus 8-32.1%; p<0.01). The one study that explored epigenome-wide methylation patterns reported three novel hyper-methylated loci (TRHDE; ZNF454; KCNAB3). The majority of reviewed studies were small, cross-sectional studies with poorly defined control groups and lacking validation. Whilst limitations in sample size and study design preclude definitive conclusions, current evidence suggests a potential utility of DNA methylation patterns as a diagnostic biomarker for oral pre-cancer progression. Robust studies such as large epigenome-wide methylation explorations of oral pre-cancer with longitudinal tracking are needed to validate the currently reported signals and identify new risk-loci and the biological pathways of disease progression

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genetic susceptibility for oral potentially malignant disorders risk: Review of evidence to date

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    SummaryBackgroundOral cancers are preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). Understanding genetic susceptibility for OPMD risk could provide an opportunity for risk assessment of oral cancer through early disease course. We conducted a review of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies for OPMD risk.MethodsWe identified all relevant studies examining associations of SNPs with OPMD (leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucous fibrosis) conducted world-wide between January, 2000 and February, 2016 using a combined keyword search on PubMed. Of these, 47 studies that presented results as odds ratios and 95% CI were considered for full review.ResultsThe majority of eligible studies that explored candidate gene associations for OPMD were small (N<200 cases), limiting their scope to provide strong inference for any SNP identified to date in any population. Commonly studied SNPs were genes of carcinogen metabolism (n=18 studies), DNA repair (n=11 studies), cell cycle control (n=8 studies), extra-cellular matrix alteration (n=8 studies) and immune-inflammatory (n=6 studies) pathways. Based on significant associations as reported by two or more studies, suggestive markers included SNPs in GSTM1 (null), CCND1 (G870A), MMP3 (-1171; promotor region), TNFα (-308; rs800629), XPD (codon 751) and Gemin3 (rs197412) as well as in p53 (codon 72) in Indian populations. However, an equal or greater number of studies reported null or mixed associations for SNPs in GSTM1 (null), p53 (codon 72), XPD (codon 751), XRCC (rs25487 C/T), GSTT1 (null) and CYP1A1m1 (MspI site).ConclusionCandidate gene association studies have not yielded consistent data on risk loci for OPMD. High-throughput genotyping approaches for OPMD, with concurrent efforts for oral cancer, could prove useful in identifying robust risk-loci to help understand early disease course susceptibility for oral cancer

    Maternal risk factors associated with term low birth weight in India: A review

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    Low birth weight is one of the leading factors for infant morbidity and mortality. To a large extent affect, various maternal risk factors are associated with pregnancy outcomes by increasing odds of delivering an infant with low birth weight. Despite this association, understanding the maternal risk factors affecting term low birth weight has been a challenging task. To date, limited studies have been conducted in India that exert independent magnitude of these effects on term low birth weight. The aim of this review is to examine the current knowledge of maternal risk factors that contribute to term low birth weight in the Indian population. In order to identify the potentially relevant articles, an extensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, Goggle Scholar and IndMed databases (1993 – Dec 2020). Our results indicate that maternal age, educational status, socio-economic status, ethnicity, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, maternal stature, maternal body mass index, obstetric history, maternal anaemia, gestational weight gain, short pregnancy outcome, hypertension during pregnancy, infection, antepartum haemorrhage, tobacco consumption, maternal occupation, maternal psychological stress, alcohol consumption, antenatal care and mid-upper arm circumference have all independent effects on term low birth weight in the Indian population. Further, we argue that exploration for various other dimensions of maternal factors and underlying pathways can be useful for a better understanding of how it exerts independent association on term low birth weight in the Indian sub-continent

    Association of Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Cardio-Metabolic Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

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    : Background: Numerous epidemiological studies indicated high levels of particulate matter less than2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5) as a major cardiovascular risk factor. Most of the studies have been conducted in high-income countries (HICs), where average levels of PM2.5 are far less compared to low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), and their socio-economic profile, disease burden, and PM speciation/composition are very different. We systematically reviewed the association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) in LMICs. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched for English articles with date limits until March 2018. We included studies investigating the association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (defined as an annual average/average measure for 3 more days of PM2.5 exposure) and CMDs, such as hospital admissions, prevalence, and deaths due to CMDs, conducted in LMICs as defined by World Bank. We excluded studies which employed exposure proxy measures, studies among specific occupational groups, and specific episodes of air pollution. RESULTS: A total of 5567 unique articles were identified, of which only 17 articles were included for final review, and these studies were from Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, and Mexico. Outcome assessed were hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related emergency room visits/admissions, death, and mortality. Largely a positive association between exposure to PM2.5 and CMDs was found, and CVD mortality with effect estimates ranging from 0.24% to 6.11% increased per 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5. CVD-related hospitalizations and emergency room visits increased by 0.3% to 19.6%. Risk factors like hypertension had an odds ratio of 1.14, and type 2 diabetes mellitus had an odds ratio ranging from 1.14-1.32. Diversity of exposure assessment and health outcomes limited the ability to perform a meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence on the association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CMDs in the LMICs context warrants cohort studies to establish the association

    Leveraging Existing Cohorts to Study Health Effects of Air Pollution on Cardiometabolic Disorders:India Global Environmental and Occupational Health Hub

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    Air pollution is a growing public health concern in developing countries and poses a huge epidemiological burden. Despite the growing awareness of ill effects of air pollution, the evidence linking air pollution and health effects is sparse. This requires environmental exposure scientist and public health researchers to work more cohesively to generate evidence on health impacts of air pollution in developing countries for policy advocacy. In the Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEOHealth) Program, we aim to build exposure assessment model to estimate ambient air pollution exposure at a very fine resolution which can be linked with health outcomes leveraging well-phenotyped cohorts which have information on geolocation of households of study participants. We aim to address how air pollution interacts with meteorological and weather parameters and other aspects of the urban environment, occupational classification, and socioeconomic status, to affect cardiometabolic risk factors and disease outcomes. This will help us generate evidence for cardiovascular health impacts of ambient air pollution in India needed for necessary policy advocacy. The other exploratory aims are to explore mediatory role of the epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation) and vitamin D exposure in determining the association between air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health outcomes. Other components of the GEOHealth program include building capacity and strengthening the skills of public health researchers in India through variety of training programs and international collaborations. This will help generate research capacity to address environmental and occupational health research questions in India. The expertise that we bring together in GEOHealth hub are public health, clinical epidemiology, environmental exposure science, statistical modeling, and policy advocacy

    Causal relationships between lipid and glycemic levels in an Indian population: A bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach.

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    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and abnormal glycemic traits are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although the association between the two traits is well established, there still exists a gap in the evidence for the direction of causality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the direction of the causal relationship between lipids and glycemic traits in an Indian population using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (BMR). METHODS: The BMR analysis was conducted on 4900 individuals (2450 sib-pairs) from the Indian Migration Study. Instrument variables were generated for each lipid and glycemic trait (fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-?, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides) to examine the causal relationship by applying two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression in both directions. RESULTS: Lipid and glycemic traits were found to be associated observationally, however, results from 2SLS showed that only triglycerides, defined by weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) of 3 SNPs (rs662799 at APOAV, rs780094 at GCKR and rs4420638 at APOE/C1/C4), were observed to be causally effecting 1.15% variation in HOMA-IR (SE = 0.22, P = 0.010), 1.53% in HOMA- ? (SE = 0.21, P = 0.001) and 1.18% in fasting insulin (SE = 0.23, P = 0.009). No evidence for a causal effect was observed in the reverse direction or between any other lipid and glycemic traits. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that triglycerides may causally impact various glycemic traits. However, the findings need to be replicated in larger studies

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genetic susceptibility for oral potentially malignant disorders risk: Review of evidence to date.

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    BACKGROUND: Oral cancers are preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). Understanding genetic susceptibility for OPMD risk could provide an opportunity for risk assessment of oral cancer through early disease course. We conducted a review of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies for OPMD risk. METHODS: We identified all relevant studies examining associations of SNPs with OPMD (leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucous fibrosis) conducted world-wide between January, 2000 and February, 2016 using a combined keyword search on PubMed. Of these, 47 studies that presented results as odds ratios and 95% CI were considered for full review. RESULTS: The majority of eligible studies that explored candidate gene associations for OPMD were small (N<200 cases), limiting their scope to provide strong inference for any SNP identified to date in any population. Commonly studied SNPs were genes of carcinogen metabolism (n=18 studies), DNA repair (n=11 studies), cell cycle control (n=8 studies), extra-cellular matrix alteration (n=8 studies) and immune-inflammatory (n=6 studies) pathways. Based on significant associations as reported by two or more studies, suggestive markers included SNPs in GSTM1 (null), CCND1 (G870A), MMP3 (-1171; promotor region), TNF? (-308; rs800629), XPD (codon 751) and Gemin3 (rs197412) as well as in p53 (codon 72) in Indian populations. However, an equal or greater number of studies reported null or mixed associations for SNPs in GSTM1 (null), p53 (codon 72), XPD (codon 751), XRCC (rs25487 C/T), GSTT1 (null) and CYP1A1m1 (MspI site). CONCLUSION: Candidate gene association studies have not yielded consistent data on risk loci for OPMD. High-throughput genotyping approaches for OPMD, with concurrent efforts for oral cancer, could prove useful in identifying robust risk-loci to help understand early disease course susceptibility for oral cancer

    Socio-economic patterning of cardiometabolic risk factors in rural and peri-urban India: Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS).

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    AIM: To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors by socio-economic position (SEP) in rural and peri-urban Indian population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 3,948 adults (1,154 households) from Telangana (2010-2012) was conducted to collect questionnaire-based data, physical measurements and fasting blood samples. We compared the prevalence of risk factors and their clustering by SEP adjusting for age using the Mantel Hansel test. RESULTS: Men and women with no education had higher prevalence of increased waist circumference (men: 8 vs. 6.4 %, P < 0.001; women: 20.9 vs. 12.0 %, P = 0.01), waist-hip ratio (men: 46.5 vs. 25.8 %, P = 0.003; women: 58.8 vs. 29.2 %, P = 0.04) and regular alcohol intake (61.7 vs. 32.5 %, P < 0.001; women: 25.7 vs. 3.8 %, P < 0.001) than educated participants. Unskilled participants had higher prevalence of regular alcohol intake (men: 57.7 vs. 38.7 %, P = 0.001; women: 28.3 vs. 7.3 %, P < 0.001). In contrast, participants with a higher standard of living index had higher prevalence of diabetes (top third vs. bottom third: men 5.2 vs. 3.5 %, P = 0.004; women 5.5 vs. 2.4 %, P = 0.003), hyperinsulinemia (men 29.5 vs. 16.3 %, P = 0.002; women 31.1 vs. 14.3 %, P < 0.001), obesity (men 23.3 vs. 10.6 %, P < 0.001; women 25.9 vs. 12.8 %, P < 0.001), and raised LDL (men 16.8 vs. 11.4 %, P = 0.001; women 21.3 vs. 14.0 %, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic risk factors are common in rural India but do not show a consistent association with SEP except for higher prevalence of smoking and regular alcohol intake in lower SEP group. Strategies to address the growing burden of cardiometabolic diseases in urbanizing rural India should be assessed for their potential impact on social inequalities in health

    Association of common genetic variants with lipid traits in the Indian population.

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    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been instrumental in identifying novel genetic variants associated with altered plasma lipid levels. However, these quantitative trait loci have not been tested in the Indian population, where there is a poorly understood and growing burden of cardiometabolic disorders. We present the association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms in 1671 sib pairs (3342 subjects) with four lipid traits: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We also investigated the interaction effects of gender, location, fat intake and physical activity. Each copy of the risk allele of rs964184 at APOA1 was associated with 1.06 mmol/l increase in triglycerides (SE = 0.049; p = 0.006), rs3764261 at CETP with 1.02 mmol/l increase in both total cholesterol (SE = 0.042; p = 0.017) and HDL-C (SE = 0.041; p = 0.008), rs646776 at CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 with 0.96 mmol/l decrease in cholesterol (SE = 0.043; p = 0.0003) and 0.15 mmol/l decrease in LDL-C levels (SE = 0.043; p = 0.0003) and rs2954029 at TRIB1 with 1.02 mmol/l increase in HDL-C (SE = 0.039; p = 0.047). A combined risk score of APOA1 and CETP loci predicted an increase of 1.25 mmol/l in HDL-C level (SE = 0.312; p = 0.0007). Urban location and sex had strong interaction effects on the genetic association of most of the studied loci with lipid traits. To conclude, we validated four genetic variants (identified by GWAS in western populations) associated with lipid traits in the Indian population. The interaction effects found here may explain the sex-specific differences in lipid levels and their heritability. Urbanization appears to influence the nature of the association with GWAS lipid loci in this population. However, these findings will require replication in other Indian populations

    Epigenetic age acceleration in the emerging burden of cardiometabolic diseases among migrant and non-migrant African populations:the population based cross-sectional RODAM study

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    BACKGROUND: African populations are experiencing health transitions due to rapid urbanization and international migration. However, the role of biological aging in this emerging burden of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) among migrant and non-migrant Africans is unknown. We aimed to examine differences in epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) as measured by four clocks (Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge and GrimAge) and their associations with cardiometabolic factors among migrant Ghanaians in Europe and non-migrant Ghanaians. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) data of 712 Ghanaians from cross-sectional RODAM study were used to quantify EAA. We assessed correlation of DNAmAge measures with chronological age, and then performed linear regressions to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and one-carbon metabolism nutrients with EAA among migrant and non-migrants. We replicated our findings among 172 rural-urban sibling pairs from India migration study and among 120 native South Africans from PURE-SA-NW study. FINDINGS: We found that Ghanaian migrants have lower EAA than non-migrants. Within migrants, higher FBG was positively associated with EAA measures. Within non-migrants, higher BMI, and Vitamin B9 (folate) intake were negatively associated with EAA measures. Our findings on FBG, BMI and folate were replicated in the independent cohorts. INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that migration is negatively associated with EAA among Ghanaians. Moreover, cardiometabolic factors are differentially associated with EAA within migrant and non-migrant subgroups. Our results call for context-based interventions for CMD among transitioning populations that account for effects of biological aging. FUNDING: European Commission
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