1,212 research outputs found

    Michał Walicki (1904-1966)

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    Michal Walicki (1904-1966) studied Art History at the University of Warsaw (1924-1929), where he received his doctorate for his dissertation on the murals in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity in the Castle of Lublin (1418), under the guidance of Prof. Zygmunt Batowski. He worked in the Department of Polish Architecture at the Warsaw Technical University, at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts (later the Academy of Fine Arts), at the National Museum, and the Art History Institute of the Warsaw University. In 1933, his earned his habilitation for his thesis on the stylistic development of panel painting in fi fifteenth-century Poland. During World War II, he participated in the resistance movement; he was arrested (in 1949) and put in prison. After his release (in 1953), he combined work at the Institute of History of Art at the Warsaw University and the State Institute of Art (later the Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences). Micha┼é WalickiÔÇÖs academic activities encompassed a surprisingly wide spectrum of subjects, though his particular field of interest was painting. He had a ÔÇśpositivistÔÇÖ temperament, concerned with a painstaking search for new works of art and the collecting of material, and above all with cataloguing and sharing the collections. In texts written before the war he built a fi rm foundation for the study of panel painting in fifteenth-century Poland, although his narrow national perspective is now certainly diffi cult to accept. After his employment at the National Museum in Warsaw, he changed his profi le of research, focusing on modern painting (particularly Dutch), but also on the best understood popularization and education through art. After the war, he initiated and coordinated the work on a series of syntheses, setting new standards of quality in Polish academic studies. He belonged to the narrow circle of great humanists who could write about art with passion, in a manner accessible and understandable to all. He developed his own, easily recognizable style, impressionistic in character, well-suited to aesthetic experiences. As an outstanding university lecturer and museum offi cial, he became one of the founders and most important authorities of the Warsaw school of art history, and as a personality had a profound impact on students and friends led by Jan Bia┼éostocki. Above all, he instilled in them a broad outlook on matters of art and the importance of publishing in foreign languages

    The portrait miniature of Cardinal Zbigniew Ole┼Ťnicki on a letter of indulgence issued in 1449 for the Church of All Saints in Cracow

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    A particularly interesting example of illuminated document is the indulgence granted to all who would visit the parish church of All Saints in Cracow on the major feasts of the liturgical year, issued by the Cracow Bishop, Cardinal Zbigniew Ole┼Ťnicki (1423-1450) in 1449. A piece of parchment is decorated with the miniature composed of two juxtaposed fields, of which the upper one shows Christ with St Peter on His right, surrounded by the community of saints; the bottom field depicts the Pope seated between St Jerome and Cardinal Ole┼Ťnicki. This hierarch had been raised to the purple no fewer than three times. For the first time, Pope Eugene IV granted him this dignity with the accompanying title of St Prisca, but Ole┼Ťnicki did not accept it. Then Antipope Felix V, elected by the Council of Basle, elevated Ole┼Ťnicki to the cardinalate (with the title of St Anastasia), but the Cracow prelate likely did not accept the cardinalÔÇÖs hat again and did not use the title, abiding by the orders of King Ladislaus the Jagiellon who was reluctant towards the Council. It was only in 1447 that Ole┼Ťnicki had relinquished the camp of the CouncilÔÇÖs supporters, regarded by Rome as schismatics, and endorsed the rightful pope, Nicholas V. Ole┼Ťnicki received the cardinalÔÇÖs hat sent from Rome in Cracow Cathedral, on 1 October 1449. The portrait composition on the Cracow miniature is complex and combining a few iconographic solutions popular in the late Middle Ages. Of particular significance seem to be the representation of the pope enthroned, the Traditio legis and Traditio clavium, as well as the juxtaposition of ecclesiastical hierarchy with the heavenly one. The Cracow miniature fitted perfectly in the then current problems of Church discussed anew in the mid-fifteenth century. Commissioned shortly after Ole┼Ťnicki had pledged obedience to Nicholas V and had received his cardinalÔÇÖs hat, it is a public declaration by the former conciliarist of his new attitude. In the reality of ÔÇścommunis sanctorumÔÇÖ showed in the upper part of the composition, Christ keeps repeating his blessing of St Peter, seated on his right, and gives him the power of the keys. The bottom part of the miniature testifies to the fact that the power had been given to the pope not ÔÇśministerialiterÔÇÖ, as conciliarists would have it, but in full

    Reconsidering the origins of portraiture : instead of an introduction

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    This introductory essay discusses central issues of European portraiture in the period of its decisive transformation in the later Middle Ages. Starting with the notion of an individual in the Middle Ages it moves on to consider means of pictorial representation of men in the High and later Middle Ages, and to reflect on portraitsÔÇÖ power to make an absent man present. All these issues are considered based on Central European examples, namely, portraits of Casimir the Great, the king of Poland; those of Charles IV, the holy roman emperor and king of Bohemia, and a celebrated portrait of Rudolph IV, the archduke of Austria, thus stressing their relevance to the development of early modern portraiture

    The Archconfraternity of the Rosary in the Dominican Churches of Krak├│w. Piety and Patronage of the Arts

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    ─îlanek obravnava umetnostni milje nadbratov┼í─Źine sv. ro┼żnega venca v dominikanski cerkvi sv. Trojice v Krakovu. Dominikanci so gore─Źe pospe┼íevali ro┼żnovensko pobo┼żnost; ustanovili so ┼ítevilne bratov┼í─Źine sv. ro┼żnega venca, ki so bile obi─Źajno povezane z njihovimi cerkvami. Skoraj gotovo je dominikanski pridigarski red spodbudil ustanovitev tak┼íne bratov┼í─Źine v Krakovu ┼że v 15. stoletju. Posredni dokaz za to je ohranjen v samostanskem arhivu v Krakovu v dokumentih, ki sta jih izdala pape┼ż Inocenc VIII. leta 1484 in general reda Avgu┼ítin Recuperati leta 1539 in se nana┼íajo na dominikansko ro┼żnovensko bratov┼í─Źino. Leta 1600 je bratov┼í─Źino s sede┼żem v Krakovu, ki je takrat obstajala ┼że ab immemorabilis tempore, Abraham Bzowski reformiral; ob tej prilo┼żnosti je izdal obse┼żno knjigo Ro┼żni venec Device Marije, sedaj na novo reformiran v Krakovu pri Sv. Trojici (Krak├│w 1600 in 1606). ┼Że takrat se dru┼żba omenja kot nadbratov┼í─Źina. Dejstvo, da je nadbratov┼í─Źina dobila eno najzgodnej┼íih in najpomembnej┼íih poljskih kopij Marije Sne┼żne, ─Źudodelne podobe v rimski baziliki S. Maria Maggiore, ki je veljala za pribe┼żali┼í─Źe ve─Źnega mesta, je imelo velik pomen za njen nadaljnji razvoj in izjemni vpliv. Razprava govori o ─Źe┼í─Źenju poljske ikone, o njenem okrasu in novem arhitekturnem prostoru, ki ga je dobila leta 1688.The essay deals with the artistic milieu of the Archconfraternity of the Rosary at the Dominican Holy Trinity Church in Krak├│w. Dominicans were zealous promoters of the rosary, and numerous Rosary brotherhoods were established, typically affiliated with Dominican churches. Therefore, it seems almost certain that in Krak├│w, as early as the 15th century, the Dominican Order of Preachers encouraged the formation of such a confraternity. Indirect evidence of this is preserved in the ConventÔÇÖs Archive in Krak├│w, in documents concerning the Dominican Confraternities of the Rosary, issued by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 and by the General of the Order, Augustine Recuperati, in 1539. In any case, in 1600, the Krak├│w-based confraternityÔÇöat that time already existing ÔÇťab immemorabilis temporeÔÇŁÔÇö was reformed by Fr. Abraham Bzowski, who elaborated and published an extensive book on this occasion: Rosary of the Virgin Mary, now reformed anew in Krak├│w at the Holy Trinity (Krak├│w 1600 and 1606). Already at that time, the confraternity was referred to as an archconfraternity. The fact that the archconfraternity was given one of the earliest and most important copies in the former Polish Republic of Our Lady of the Snows, a miracle-working image in the Roman basilica of S. Maria Maggiore that was considered a palladium of the Eternal City, was of great importance to its development and extraordinary influence. The essay discusses the Polish iconÔÇÖs veneration, decoration, and the new architectural space it received in 1688

    LÔÇÖEuropa Jagiellonica a-t-elle exist├ęÔÇ»? Quelques nouvelles de la recherche sur lÔÇÖart en Europe centrale et orientale (1386-1572)

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    La puissante dynastie des Jagellons, originaire de Lituanie et dont les membres sont rest├ęs pa├»ens jusquÔÇÖ├á la fin du xvie┬ási├Ęcle, est entr├ęe dans lÔÇÖhistoire de lÔÇÖEurope latine avec le bapt├¬me et lÔÇÖaccession au tr├┤ne du royaume de Pologne du prince Jogajla en 1386. En ├ępousant Hedwige, une princesse de la branche hongroise de la maison dÔÇÖAnjou couronn├ęe reine de Pologne apr├Ęs lÔÇÖextinction de la dynastie locale des Piast en 1370, Jogajla inaugura sous le nom de Ladislas┬áII Jagellon le long et f..

    Dlaczego kr├│l Kazimierz Wielki zachowa┼é od zniszczenia wawelsk─ů rotund─Ö Naj┼Ťwi─Ötszej Marii Panny?

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    Uroczysto┼Ťci pi─Ö─çsetlecia kanonizacji ┼Ťw. Stanis┼éawa w Krakowie w r. 1753 okiem historyka sztuki

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    On September 8, 1753 a celebration took place in the Wawel Cathedral to commemorate the five-hundredth anniversary of the canonisation of St. Stanislaus. The main element of a specially prepared decoration was a structure of considerable size as sembled in the middle of the nave, opposite the martyrÔÇÖs tomb. It served as a throne on top of which a late Gothic reliquary, made by a Cracovian goldsmith Marcin Marciniec, for StanislausÔÇÖ head was placed. The structure was embellished with the SaintÔÇÖs coats of arms and candelabras and over it a canopy with wings spread to the sides was hung. On both sides of the reliquary two eagles were placed. Two more, holding a mitre and a crosier, stood underneath. In the four comers of the structure four obelisks adorned with candelabras were placed, while the sides of the altar of St. Stanislaus had two more with lights and bishopÔÇÖs insignia painted on them. Among various forms of relics veneration propagated by the Church after the Council of Trent, one was their solemn presentation to the congregation. The article analyses different examples of decorations connected with such presentations. As a close analogy to CracowÔÇÖs celebrations a jubilee of the nine-hundredth anniversary of the translation of St. Liborius from Le Mans to Paderbom celebrated in 1736 was chosen. The analysis includes annual celebrations inhonour of St. Florian at Sackingen and customs connected with the translations of relics from the catacombs in Rome to churches in the Habsburg countries. The examples listed and the analysis of the written sources about Cracow allowed a hypothetical┬á reconstruction of occasional architecture and an interpretation of its symbolic contents.W 1753 roku w katedrze wawelskiej ┼Ťwi─Ötowano obchody kanonizacji ┼Ťw. Stanis┼éawa Biskupa i M─Öczennika. Rocznic─Ö celebrowano w dniu 8 wrze┼Ťnia, w ┼Ťwi─Öto Narodzenia Matki Boskiej. Dzie┼ä wcze┼Ťniejw udekorowanym i dobrze o┼Ťwietlonym wn─Ötrzu katedry obchody rozpocz─Öto od uroczystych nieszpor├│w. Po ich┬á zako┼äczeniu oddano salwy z 36 dzia┼é ustawionych w r├│┼╝nych cz─Ö┼Ťciach miasta le┼╝─ůcych poza murami. Tu┼╝ po godzinie trzeciej po po┼éudniu zacz─ů┼é bi─ç Zygmunt, a za nim wszystkie krakowskie dzwony. Podobnie sta┼éo si─Ö o godzinie si├│dmej wieczorem, a nast─Öpnego dnia o godzinie si├│dmej rano i o┬á sz├│stej po po┼éudniu na zako┼äczenie uroczysto┼Ťci. G┼é├│wn─ů msz─Ö ┼Ťwi─ůteczn─ů celebrowa┼é go┼Ťcinnie biskup inflancki Antoni┬á Ostrowski, a ordynariusz krakowski czyta┼é msz─Ö przy grobie ┼Ťwi─Ötego. W czasie mszy g┼é├│wnej kazanie wyg┼éosi┼é profesor ┼Ťwi─Ötej teologii Antoni Krzanowski, kanonik kolegiaty ┼Ťw. Floriana. Na zako┼äczenie obchod├│w, w kt├│rych uczestniczy┼éca┼éy krakowski kler oraz bractwa, od┼Ťpiewano Te Deum, a biskup udzieli┼é zgromadzonym b┼éogos┼éawie┼ästwa. Po nim uformowa┼éa si─Ö procesja, kt├│ra przy wt├│rze antyfony Vir inclyte Stanislae wyruszy┼éa od o┼étarza g┼é├│wnego w stron─Ö tronu w nawie g┼é├│wnej, gdzie od pocz─ůtku uroczysto┼Ťci spoczywa┼éa g┼éowa ┼Ťwi─Ötego. Wraz z relikwi─ů procesja przesz┼éa obok grobu m─Öczennika, a zako┼ä┬şczy┼éo j─ů od┼Ťpiewanie Gaud─Ö Mater Polonia. Po zako┼äczeniu uroczysto┼Ťci w katedrze biskup przeszed┼é do ko┼Ťcio┼éa Franciszkan├│w, gdzie odczytano bull─Ö beatyfikacyjn─ů J├│zefa z Kupertynu
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