41 research outputs found

    Nonoperative Treatment of Charcot Neuro-osteoarthropathy

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    Conservative treatment of Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) aims to retain a stable, plantigrade, and ulcer-free foot, or to prevent progression of an already existing deformity. CN is treated with offloading in a total contact cast as long as CN activity is present. Transition to inactive CN is monitored by the resolution of clinical activity signs and by resolution of bony edema in MRI. Fitting of orthopedic depth insoles, orthopedic shoes, or ankle-foot orthosis should follow immediately after offloading has ended to prevent CN reactivation or ulcer development. Keywords: Charcot arthropathy; Charcot foot; Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy; Conservative; Management; Nonoperative; Treatmen

    Endoscopic Treatment of Stump Infection of the Residual Synovial Cavity After Through-the-Knee Amputation: A Case Report

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    CASE We report the case of a 35-year-old patient who presented with a septic residual synovial cavity infection 8 weeks after a through-the-knee amputation because of a parosteal sarcoma. An endoscopic evacuation of the turbid fluid and synovial debridement through parapatellar portals as in a standard knee arthroscopy was performed, in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. One year postoperatively, there were no signs of residual infection. CONCLUSION Endoscopic treatment of a septic stump infection of the residual synovial cavity after through-the-knee amputation is feasible. In our case, this approach resulted in rapid wound healing and early prosthesis mobility

    Foot Osteomyelitis Location and Rates of Primary or Secondary Major Amputations in Patients With Diabetes

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    BACKGROUND Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) often leads to amputations in the lower extremity. Data on the influence of the initial anatomical DFO localization on ultimate major amputation are limited. METHODS In this retrospective analysis, 583 amputation episodes in 344 patients (78 females, 266 males) were analyzed. All received a form of amputation in combination with antibiotic therapy. A multivariate logistic regression analysis with the primary outcome "major amputation" defined as an amputation above the ankle joint was performed. The association of risk factors including location of DFO, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy was analyzed. RESULTS Among 583 episodes, DFO was located in the forefoot in 512 (87.8%), in the midfoot in 43 (7.4%), and in the hindfoot in 28 episodes (4.8%). Overall, 53 of 63 (84.1%) major amputations were performed because of DFO in the setting of peripheral artery disease as primary indication. Overall, limb loss occurred in 6.1% (31/512) of forefoot, 20.9% (9/43) of midfoot, and 46.4% (13/28) of hindfoot DFO. Among these, 22 (41.5%) were performed as the primary treatment, whereas 31 (58.5%) followed previously failed minor amputations. Among this latter group of secondary major amputations, the DFO was localized to the forefoot in 23 of 583 (3.9%), the midfoot in 4 of 583 (0.7%) and the hindfoot in 4 of 583 (0.7%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, initial hindfoot localization was a significant factor (P < .05), whereas peripheral artery disease, smoking, and a midfoot DFO were not found to be risk factors. CONCLUSION In our retrospective series, the frequency of limb loss in DFO increased with more proximal initial foot DFO lesions, with almost half of patients losing their limbs with a hindfoot DFO. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level IV, retrospective cohort study

    The impact of the length of total and intravenous systemic antibiotic therapy for the remission of diabetic foot infections

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    OBJECTIVE We investigated the impact of the total length of systemic antibiotic therapy (ABT) and its initial intravenous (IV) part on clinical failure (CF) and microbiological failure (MF) in diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS In this single-center, retrospective, unmatched case-control study, we included DFI episodes treated with a combined surgical-antibiotic approach. RESULTS We included 721 DFI episodes, 537 with osteomyelitis (DFO). CF occurred in 191 (26.5%) and MF in 42 (5.8%) episodes. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a short ABT of 8-21 days (hazard ratio [HR] 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7) was inversely associated with CF. This was also applicable for IV ABT with relatively short durations of 2-7 days (HR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or 8-14 days (HR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9). We failed to detect a minimal threshold of total or IV ABT predictive for CF or MF. CONCLUSIONS Compared with total ABT of more than 84 days and IV therapy of more than 14 days, shorter total and IV ABT yielded no enhanced risk of CF or MF. Considering the "bias by indication" that is inherent to retrospective DFI studies, the best study design concerning the duration of ABT would be a stratified, prospective randomized trial, which is currently under way in our medical center

    Timing of Revascularization and Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment Associated with Therapeutic Failures in Ischemic Diabetic Foot Infections

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    For ischemic diabetic foot infections (DFIs), revascularization ideally occurs before surgery, while a parenteral antibiotic treatment could be more efficacious than oral agents. In our tertiary center, we investigated the effects of the sequence between revascularization and surgery (emphasizing the perioperative period of 2 weeks before and after surgery), and the influence of administering parenteral antibiotic therapy on the outcomes of DFIs. Among 838 ischemic DFIs with moderate-to-severe symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, we revascularized 608 (72%; 562 angioplasties, 62 vascular surgeries) and surgically debrided all. The median length of postsurgical antibiotic therapy was 21 days (given parenterally for the initial 7 days). The median time delay between revascularization and debridement surgery was 7 days. During the long-term follow-up, treatment failed and required reoperation in 182 DFI episodes (30%). By multivariate Cox regression analyses, neither a delay between surgery and angioplasty (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.0), nor the postsurgical sequence of angioplasty (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.8), nor long-duration parenteral antibiotic therapy (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1) prevented failures. Our results might indicate the feasibility of a more practical approach to ischemic DFIs in terms of timing of vascularization and more oral antibiotic use

    Ulcer occurrence on adjacent toes and hallux valgus deformity after amputation of the second toe in diabetic patients

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    BACKGROUND Amputation of the second toe is associated with destabilization of the first toe. Possible consequences are hallux valgus deformity and subsequent pressure ulcers on the lateral side of the first or on the medial side of the third toe. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and possible influencing factors of interdigital ulcer development and hallux valgus deformity after second toe amputation. METHODS Twenty-four cases of amputation of the second toe between 2004 and 2020 (mean age 68 ± 12 years; 79% males) were included with a mean follow-up of 36 ± 15 months. Ulcer development on the first, third, or fourth toe after amputation, the body mass index (BMI) and the amputation level (toe exarticulation versus transmetatarsal amputation) were recorded. Pre- and postoperative foot radiographs were evaluated for the shape of the first metatarsal head (round, flat, chevron-type), the hallux valgus angle, the first-second intermetatarsal angle, the distal metatarsal articular angle and the hallux valgus interphalangeal angle by two orthopedic surgeons for interobserver reliability. RESULTS After amputation of the second toe, the interdigital ulcer rate on the adjacent toes was 50% and the postoperative hallux valgus rate was 71%. Neither the presence of hallux valgus deformity itself (r = .19, p = .37), nor the BMI (r = .09, p = .68), the shape of the first metatarsal head (r = - .09, p = .67), or the amputation level (r = .09, p = .69) was significantly correlated with ulcer development. The interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements was high, oscillating between 0.978 (p = .01) and 0.999 (p = .01). CONCLUSIONS The interdigital ulcer rate on the first or third toe after second toe amputation was 50% and hallux valgus development was high. To date, evidence on influencing factors is lacking and this study could not identify parameters such as the BMI, the shape of the first metatarsal head or the amputation level as risk factors for the development of either hallux valgus deformity or ulcer occurrence after second toe amputation. TRIAL REGISTRATION BASEC-Nr. 2019-01791

    The Epidemiology of Antibiotic-Related Adverse Events in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections: A Narrative Review of the Literature

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    The use of antibiotics for the treatment of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) over an extended period of time has been shown to be associated with adverse events (AEs), whereas interactions with concomitant patient medications must also be considered. The objective of this narrative review was to summarize the most frequent and most severe AEs reported in prospective trials and observational studies at the global level in DFI. Gastrointestinal intolerances were the most frequent AEs, from 5% to 22% among all therapies; this was more common when prolonged antibiotic administration was combined with oral beta-lactam or clindamycin or a higher dose of tetracyclines. The proportion of symptomatic colitis due to Clostridium difficile was variable depending on the antibiotic used (0.5% to 8%). Noteworthy serious AEs included hepatotoxicity due to beta-lactams (5% to 17%) or quinolones (3%); cytopenia's related to linezolid (5%) and beta-lactams (6%); nausea under rifampicin, and renal failure under cotrimoxazole. Skin rash was found to rarely occur and was commonly associated with the use of penicillins or cotrimoxazole. AEs from prolonged antibiotic use in patients with DFI are costly in terms of longer hospitalization or additional monitoring care and can trigger additional investigations. The best way to prevent AEs is to keep the duration of antibiotic treatment short and with the lowest dose clinically necessary

    Initial antibiotic therapy for postoperative moderate or severe diabetic foot infections: Broad versus narrow spectrum, empirical versus targeted

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    AIM To retrospectively evaluate clinical and microbiological outcomes after combined surgical and medical therapy for diabetic foot infections (DFIs), stratifying between the empirical versus the targeted nature, and between an empirical broad versus a narrow-spectrum, antibiotic therapy. METHODS We retrospectively assessed the rate of ultimate therapeutic failures for each of three types of initial postoperative antibiotic therapy: adequate empirical therapy; culture-guided therapy; and empirical inadequate therapy with a switch to targeted treatment based on available microbiological results. RESULTS We included data from 332 patients who underwent 716 DFI episodes of surgical debridement, including partial amputations. Clinical failure occurred in 40 of 194 (20.6%) episodes where adequate empirical therapy was given, in 77 of 291 (26.5%) episodes using culture-guided (and correct) therapy from the start, and in 73 of 231 (31.6%) episodes with switching from empirical inadequate therapy to culture-targeted therapy. Equally, a broad-spectrum antibiotic choice could not alter this failure risk. Group comparisons, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses failed to show either statistical superiority or inferiority of any of the initial antibiotic strategies. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the microbiological adequacy of the initial antibiotic regimen after (surgical) debridement for DFI did not alter therapeutic outcomes. We recommend that clinicians follow the stewardship approach of avoiding antibiotic de-escalation and start with a narrow-spectrum regimen based on the local epidemiology

    Short and oral antimicrobial therapy for diabetic foot infection: a narrative review of current knowledge

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    Diabetic foot infection is a frequent complication in long-standing diabetes mellitus. For antimicrobial therapy of this infection, both the optimal duration and the route of administration are often based more on expert opinion than on published evidence. We reviewed the scientific literature, specifically seeking prospective trials, and aimed at addressing two clinical issues: (1) shortening the currently recommended antibiotic duration and (2) using oral (rather than parenteral) therapy, especially after the patient has undergone debridement and revascularization. We also reviewed some older key articles that are critical to our understanding of the treatment of these infections, particularly with respect to diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Our conclusion is that the maximum duration of antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis should be no more than to 4-6 weeks and might even be shorter in selected cases. In the future, in addition to conducting randomized trials and propagating national and international guidance, we should also explore innovative strategies, such as intraosseous antibiotic agents and bacteriophages

    Nutritional Interventions May Improve Outcomes of Patients Operated on for Diabetic Foot Infections: A Single-Center Case-Control Study

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    Aim While a patient's nutritional status is known to generally have a role in postoperative wound healing, there is little information on its role as therapy in the multifaceted problem of diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Methods We assessed this issue by conducting a retrospective case-control cohort study using a multivariate Cox regression model. The nutrition status of the DFI patients was assessed by professional nutritionists, who also orchestrated the nutritional intervention (counselling, composition of the intrahospital food) during hospitalization. Results Among 1,013 DFI episodes in 586 patients (median age 67 years; 882 with osteomyelitis), 191 (19%) received a professional assessment of their nutrition accompanied by between 1 and 6 nutritional interventions. DFI cases who had professional nutritionists' interventions had a significantly shorter hospital stay, had shorter antibiotic therapies, and tended to fewer surgical debridements. By multivariate analysis, episodes with low Nutritional Risk Status- (NRS-) Scores 1-3 were associated with significantly lower failure rates after therapy for DFI (Cox regression analysis; hazard ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). Conclusions In this retrospective cohort study, DFI episodes with low NRS-Score were associated with lower rates of clinical failure after DFI treatment, while nutritional interventions improved the outcome of DFI. We need prospective interventional trials for this treatment, and these are underway
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