342 research outputs found

    The relation of unrest-related distress with probable depression during and after widespread civil unrest

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    Abstract Background This study investigated whether subjective unrest-related distress was associated with probable depression during and after the 2019 anti-ELAB movement in Hong Kong. Methods Population-representative data were collected from 7157 Hong Kong Chinese in four cross-sectional surveys (July 2019–July 2020). Logistic regression examined the association between subjective unrest-related distress and probable depression (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10), stratified by the number of conflicts/protests across the four timepoints. Results Unrest-related distress was positively associated with probable depression across different numbers of conflicts/protests. Conclusion Unrest-related distress is a core indicator of probable depression. Public health interventions should target at resolving the distress during seemingly peaceful period after unrest

    Investigating the relationship between COVID-19-related and distress and ICD-11 adjustment disorder : two cross-sectional studies

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    Background To assess the prevalence of elevated risk of serious mental illness and probable ICD-11 adjustment disorder in the UK population at two time points during COVID-19, and their association with COVID-19-related stressful events. Aims To check the dose–response model for stress between the number of COVID-19-related stressful events and mental health indices. Method We conducted two cross-sectional studies, using internet survey samples across the UK (N = 1293 for study 1; N = 1073 for study 2). Samples used internet panel surveys during March–April 2020 and 3 months later (June 2020), and used random stratified samples. Studies assessed prevalence of serious risk of mental illness and probable ICD-11 adjustment disorder. Results Elevated risk of serious mental illness was found among those with COVID-19-related social life or occupationally stressful events (study 1). Elevated risk of serious mental illness and probable ICD-11 adjustment disorder was evident among those reporting COVID-19-related stressful events (personal health problems and caregiving; study 2). Cumulative COVID-19-related stressful events were associated with elevated risk of serious mental illness in study 1 (odds ratio 1.65; 95% CI 1.03–2.64; P = 0.037), and with both elevated risk of serious mental illness (odds ratio 2.19; 95% CI 1.15–4.15; P = 0.017) and probable ICD-11 adjustment disorder (odds ratio 2.45; 95% CI 1.27–4.72; P = 0.007) in study 2. Conclusions Psychiatrists should be aware that COVID-19-related stressful events can lead to serious psychological problems. Mental health professionals need to pay particular attention to patients who report cumulative COVID-19-related stressful events, and consider them for mental health assessment and treatment

    Social capital, income loss, and psychobehavioral responses amid COVID-19 : a population-based analysis

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    This study examined the associations of perceived social capital and income change since the outbreak with probable depression and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 3011 Hong Kong Chinese aged ≥ 15 years (mean = 44, 55% females) between February 25 and April 29 2020. Respondents reported social capital (perceived interpersonal trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging), income change since the outbreak (loss vs. gain/no change), depressive symptoms, preventive behaviors, and demographics. Controlling for sociodemographics, lack of perceived interpersonal trust was associated with probable depression and avoiding contact with people with respiratory symptoms. Lack of perceived sense of belonging was associated with probable depression and decreased odds of adopting preventive behaviors. Lack of perceived social harmony was associated with probable depression and increased odds of used face masks among respondents with income loss only. Our results suggest that social capital is related to lower risk of depression and to higher chance of used face masks particularly among those experiencing income loss related to COVID-19. Prevention of mental health problems and promotion of effective preventive behaviors could be implemented by focusing on support for those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. View Full-Tex

    Psychiatric symptoms and behavioral adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic : evidence from two population-representative cohorts

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    This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14.9% and 14% and depression were 19.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Increased odds of anxiety and depression were associated with disrupted routines and lower socioeconomic status in both surveys, whereas depression was inversely related to the novel preventive routine of avoiding going to crowded places in survey 1. The prevalences of anxiety and depression were higher than preceding public health/social crises. A heavier burden of psychiatric conditions was evidenced amongst people experiencing disrupted daily routines across different phases of the pandemic and without novel preventive routines in the early phase

    Probable anxiety and components of psychological resilience amid COVID-19 : a population-based study

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    Background This study examined the associations between components of psychological resilience with mental health at different levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors. Methods A population-representative sample of 4,021 respondents were recruited and assessed between February 25th and March 19th, 2020. Respondents reported current anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale [GAD-7]), cognitive components (perceived ability to adapt to change, tendency to bounce back after adversities) and behavioral components (regularity of primary and secondary daily routines) of resilience, worry about COVID-19 infection, and sociodemographics. Results Logistic regression revealed that cognitive and behavioral components of resilience were not correlated with probable anxiety (GAD-7≥10) among those reporting no worry. Among respondents who were worried, all resilient components were inversely associated with probable anxiety. Specifically, propensity to bounce back and regular primary routines were more strongly related to lower odds of probable anxiety among those reporting lower levels of worry. Limitations The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Second, other resilient components and some key daily routines that could be related to better mental health were not assessed. Third, generalizability of the findings to other similar major cities is uncertain because cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Hong Kong have been comparatively lower. Conclusions To foster mental health, cultivation of confidence in one's ability to adapt to change and a propensity to bounce back from hardship should be coupled with sustainment of regular daily routines. Such assessment and intervention protocols are more relevant to those who suffer heightened levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors

    Initiation of warfarin is associated with decreased mortality in patients with infective endocarditis: A population-based cohort study.

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    The use of warfarin to prevent thromboembolism in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) remains controversial due to potentially increased bleeding risks. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 18 or older and diagnosed with IE in Hong Kong between January 1st, 1997 and August 31st, 2020 were included. Patients with use of any anticoagulant 30 days before IE diagnosis were excluded. Patients initiated on warfarin within 14 days of IE diagnosis and patients without warfarin use were matched for baseline characteristics using 1:1 propensity score matching. Warfarin use within 14 days of IE diagnosis. Patients were followed up to 90 days for the outcomes of ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Cox regression was used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) [95 % confidence intervals (CIs)] between treatment groups. Fine-Gray competing risk regression with all-cause mortality as the competing event was performed as a sensitivity analysis. In addition to 90-day analyses, landmark analyses were performed at 30 days of follow-up. The matched cohort consisted of 675 warfarin users (57.0 % male, age 59 ± 16 years) and 675 warfarin non-users (53.5 % male, age 61 ± 19 years). Warfarin users had a 50 % decreased 90-day risk in all-cause mortality (HR:0.50 [0.39-0.65]), without significantly different 90-day risks of ischemic stroke (HR:1.04 [0.70-1.53]), intracranial hemorrhage (HR:1.25 [0.77-2.04]), and gastrointestinal bleeding (HR:1.04 [0.60-1.78]). Thirty-day landmark analysis showed similar results. Competing risk regression showed significantly higher 30-day cumulative incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in warfarin users (sub-HR:3.34 [1.34-8.31]), but not at 90-day (sub-HR:1.63 [0.95-2.81]). Results from Fine-Gray regression were otherwise congruent with those from Cox regression. Warfarin initiated within 14 days of IE diagnosis was associated with significantly decreased risks of mortality but higher risks of intracranial hemorrhage, with similar risks of ischemic stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding, compared with non-use of warfarin with 14 days of IE diagnosis. Question: Is warfarin, initiated within 14 days of a diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE), efficacious and safe? In this propensity score-matched, population-based, prospective cohort study from Hong Kong, warfarin use within 14 days of IE diagnosis was associated with a 50 % decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality, albeit with higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage, and without significant differences in the risk of ischaemic stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding. Meaning: In patients with IE, warfarin use within 14 days of diagnosis may have mortality benefits, despite increased risks of intracranial hemorrhage. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Psychological factors underpinning vaccine willingness in Israel, Japan and Hungary

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    The spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to rapid vaccine development. However, there remains considerable vaccine hesitancy in some countries. We investigate vaccine willingness in three nations with very different vaccine histories: Israel, Japan and Hungary. Employing an ecological-systems approach we analyse associations between health status, individual cognitions, norms, trust in government, COVID-19 myths and willingness to be vaccinated, with data from three nationally representative samples (Israel, Jan. 2021, N=1011; Japan, Feb. 2021, N= 997; Hungary, April 2021, N=1130). Vaccine willingness was higher in Israel (74%) than Japan (51%) or Hungary (31%). In all three countries vaccine willingness was greatest amongst who would regret not being vaccinated and respondents who trusted their government. Multi-group latent class analysis identified three groups of COVID myths, with particular concern about alteration of DNA (Israel), allergies (Hungary) and infection from the vaccine (Japan). Intervention campaigns should address such cultural myths while emphasising both individual and social benefits of vaccination

    High visit-to-visit cholesterol variability predicts heart failure and adverse cardiovascular events: a population-based cohort study

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    Dyslipidaemia is associated with elevated cardiovascular risks, with the INTERHEART study observing a tripling of myocardial infarction (MI) risk in patients with dyslipidaemia.1 Most studies focused on mean levels or point estimates of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), despite well-known visit-to-visit variability.2 Visit-to-visit cholesterol variability, reflecting fluctuations in cholesterol levels between visits, is prognostic for some adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiac arrhythmias and mortality.3,4 Nonetheless, associations between cholesterol variability and heart failure (HF) remain unclear. This study therefore investigated the associations between LDL-C and HDL-C variabilities and the risk of new-onset HF and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes

    Intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cancer perception: a confirmatory factor analysis of the cancer experience and efficacy scale (CEES)

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    Purpose Sociocultural factors influence psychological adjustment to cancer in Asian patients in two major ways: Prioritization of relationships over individual orientations and belief in the efficacy of interpersonal cooperation. We derived and validated among Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients an instrument assessing cancer perceptions to enable the study of the sociocultural processes. Patients and methods Qualitative interviews (n=16) derived 15 items addressing interpersonal experience in Chinese CRC patients' adjustment. These 15 items and 18 corresponding self-referent items were administered to 166 Chinese CRC survivors and subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish the initial scale structure and reliability. The final 29 items, together with other psychometric measures, were administered to a second cohort of 215 CRC patients and subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results EFA (63.35% of the total variance) extracted six factors: Personal strain, socioeconomic strain, emotional strain, personal efficacy, collective efficacy, and proxy efficacy. CFA confirmed the psychometric structure [?2(df)=702.91 (368); Comparative Fit Index=0.95; Nonnormed Fit Index= 0.94; Incremental Fit Index=0.95; standardized root mean square residual=0.08] of the six factors by using a model with two latent factors: Experience and efficacy. All subscales were reliable (a=0.76-0.92). Appropriate correlations with adjustment outcomes (symptom distress, psychological morbidity, and subjective well-being), optimistic personalities, and social relational quality indicated its convergent and divergent validity. Known group comparisons (i.e., age, active treatment, and colostomy) showed its clinical utility. Conclusion The cancer experience and efficacy scale is a valid multidimensional instrument for assessing intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cancer experience in Asian patients, potentiating existing patient-reported outcome measures. © Springer-Verlag 2009.published_or_final_versionSpringer Open Choice, 01 Dec 201

    Robust estimation of bacterial cell count from optical density

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    Optical density (OD) is widely used to estimate the density of cells in liquid culture, but cannot be compared between instruments without a standardized calibration protocol and is challenging to relate to actual cell count. We address this with an interlaboratory study comparing three simple, low-cost, and highly accessible OD calibration protocols across 244 laboratories, applied to eight strains of constitutive GFP-expressing E. coli. Based on our results, we recommend calibrating OD to estimated cell count using serial dilution of silica microspheres, which produces highly precise calibration (95.5% of residuals <1.2-fold), is easily assessed for quality control, also assesses instrument effective linear range, and can be combined with fluorescence calibration to obtain units of Molecules of Equivalent Fluorescein (MEFL) per cell, allowing direct comparison and data fusion with flow cytometry measurements: in our study, fluorescence per cell measurements showed only a 1.07-fold mean difference between plate reader and flow cytometry data
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