4 research outputs found

    Histological and Morphological Study of the Placenta in Gestational: Pregestational Diabetic, and Normal Women’s

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    This study was aimed at comparing the morphometric and histological features of the placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM), and non-diabetic normal pregnant women. Twenty-four placentas were obtained from non-diabetic pregnant women (control group), ten from women with GDM, and ten from PGDM women. Segments from the central part of the placenta were taken and processed for paraffin blocks, sectioned, and stained with H&E, Masson trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff. The results of morphometric measurement revealed that the mean weight and diameter of GDM and PGDM placentae were significantly higher than in the control; placental thickness was a significant increase in PGDM; the number of cotyledons and fetal weights showed no significant difference in all these groups; the fetoplacental ratio was significantly higher in the PGDM; discoidal placenta shape, followed by irregular, oval, and kidney as the most common shapes recorded in these groups; the central umbilical cord insertion was most common in all three groups; followed by noncentral (eccentric) and marginal insertions. Diabetes caused several histopathological changes in the placenta, including an increase in the number of different sizes of villi with a decrease in the intervillous spaces, an increase in the: number of big syncytial knots, and fibrinoid necrosis; chronogenesis in the intervillous spaces and villous capillary congestion. Diabetic groups showed the presence of dense collagen fibers within the villous stroma (villous stromal fibrosis) and around fetal blood capillaries. GDM showed a mild thickening of the basement membrane (BM) of chorionic villi and a mild increase in the collagen in the villous stroma. While PGDM showed a moderate increase in the BM of syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma and mild thickening of the BM of capillary blood vessels. In conclusion, both GDM and PGDM caused adverse effects on the histological and morphometrical features of the placenta. Keywords: Placenta; Diabetes Mellitus; Morphometric analysis; Histopathology, Masson trichrome stain; Periodic acid shift reaction. DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/13-6-03 Publication date: April 30th 202

    The Effects of Different Concentrations of Retinoic Acid on the Histological Structure of Liver of Adult Albino Female Mice and Their Prenatal Fetuses

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    Retinoic acid (RA) an active metabolite of vitamin A, plays essential signaling roles in mammalian embryonic development and adult homeostasis through concentration-dependent activity but in excess, RA is teratogenic. The present study was designed to evaluate the harmful effect of RA on the: liver tissues of the adult pregnant female albino mice and their prenatal fetuses and adult morphological and behavior changes. Forty-five pregnant adult female albino mice were divided into three groups (n=15 for each group). Group I, the control group orally received 0.1ml of olive oil. Group II and III received 25 and 50mg RA/kg B.W. respectively. RA was dissolved in 0.1ml of olive oil and orally given on 7th, 8th, and 9th days of pregnancy. On the 18th day of gestation, these females were sacrificed and the liver from mother and their prenatal were removed, weighed, and prepared for histological study. The RA treated adult group exhibited behavior changes including general fatigue and loss of appetite, in addition to the morphological changes which included weight loss, change in normal red eye color towards black, and redness in the mouth and chin area associated with loss of hair (fur) around this area. These observations were showed to be more severe in the 50 mg RA group. The results showed that treatment with 25 and 50mg RA caused no significant decrease in the adult liver weight, while in their prenatal fetuses 50mg RA caused a higher significant decrease in the liver weight, but 25 mg RA caused no significant effects on this weight. Treated with 50mg/kg RA caused a highly significant increase in the number of aborted and dead fetuses as compared with other groups. The results of the histological study showed that treatment with both concentrations of RA caused several degrees of the liver damage with disrupted the normal architecture pattern along with hepatocellular steatosis, hypertrophy, and inflammation.  In conclusions, RA caused variable degrees of degeneration and destruction of the liver tissues of adult female (mother) and their prenatal. The most important effects of RA are causing hepatocellular steatosis, hypertrophy, and inflammation, and when RA giving during the critical periods of embryonic development, caused harmful effects on the developing liver, therefore treatment with RA should be avoided at any stage of gestation. Keywords: Liver, retinoic acid, embryonic development, vitamin A, histological study. DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/10-18-04 Publication date:September 30th 2020

    The Effects of Insulin Like Growth Factor -1 (IGF-1) on the Plasticity of Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Colonies to In Vitro Neurogenic Differentiation

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    Umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are pluripotent, easily expanded in culture, and has been much interest in their clinical potential for tissue repair and gene therapy. This study was performed to investigate the possibility of obtaining clonally expanded culture of MSCs derived from human UCB then studying the effect of Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) on the plasticity of MSCs colonies to their in vitro neurogenic differentiation and determining the differentiation pathway using neural marker (nestin). The mononuclear cells (MNCs) were obtained from cord blood after gradient density centrifugation, these cells were cultivated in a culture medium Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM)  supplemented with 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS), then incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for three weeks. In most cases, the cultures of plastic-adherent cells proved to be heterogonous. Both spindle-shaped and round cells were observed. Immunophenotypically, the MSCs were found to be positive for CD71 and negative for CD34. These results indicated that MSCs are not hematopoietic in origin. These cells after passage retained their fibroblast –like morphology. Regardless to the concentration of IGF-I, this growth factor stimulates the differentiation of MSCs –toward the neuronal pathway. So, the MSCs colonies showed the ability to maintain their plasticity to form the specialized cells (neuronal like cells) after treated with IGF-I even in culturing for long time and these cells stained positively to the nestin marker. In conclusion: the IGF-I promoted and maintained the plasticity of UCB-derived MSCs and their colonies to differentiate into neuronal-like cells. Key words: Mesenchymal stem cells, Umbilical cord blood, Nestin, Neurogenic differentiation, Insulin like growth factor-1

    A Comparison of the Human Umbilical Cord's Histomorphometric and Histological Structure in Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

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    This study aimed to explore the histomorphometrical and histopathological alterations of umbilical cord (UC) vessels caused by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM). A total of thirty UC samples were obtained from full term pregnant women without any complications. Ten out of thirty UCs were obtained from non-diabetic pregnant women (normal group), 10 from GDM and 10 from PGDM pregnant women. Segments from the placental attachment, center and fetal side of UCs were taken for each group. These segments were processed for paraffin blocks, sectioned, and stained with H&E, Masson trichrome (MT) and Periodic Acid Shift (PAS). The results of the histomorphometric study showed no significant differences in the UC mean weight among these three groups. In three different segments, GDM resulted in a significant decrease in artery and vein wall thickness compared to the control group. GDM and PGDM resulted in a non-significant difference in the diameter of artery and vein in fetal segment, the vein in placental segment, and artery in the central segment compared with normal. All the UCs in the three groups contained two arteries and one vein but only one cord recorded in the GDM group contained one artery and one vein. Histological study of diabetic UC segments showed extravasation of blood, artery discordance, degeneration of Warton’s jelly (WJ) fibers with formation of honeycomb like empty spaces, formation of multiple spaces between smooth muscle cells of tunica media and detachment of the umbilical arteries from surrounding WJ. In both diabetic groups, there was a marked decrease in collagen fibers in tunica intima and media with their irregular arrangement in both arteries and vein especially in placental segment. The results also showed there was a rich carbohydrate content in the intima and media in all three groups. In conclusion, the current results proved that GDM and PGDM have an adverse effect on the structure of UC and its vessels. Keywords: Umbilical cord; Diabetes mellitus; Histological study; Special stains; Blood vessels DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/13-6-04 Publication date: April 30th 2023