1,209 research outputs found

    Metformin Activity against Breast Cancer: Mechanistic Differences by Molecular Subtype and Metabolic Conditions

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    Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of and reduce survival in breast cancer (BC) patients. Metformin is the only anti-diabetic drug that alters this risk, with a reduction in BC incidence and improved outcomes. Metformin has AMP-kinase (AMPK) dependent and independent mechanisms of action, most notably affecting the liver and skeletal muscle. We and others have shown that metformin also downregulates protein and lipid synthesis; deactivates various receptor tyrosine kinases; alters cell cycle transcription/translation; modulates mitochondrial respiration and miRNA activation; targets key metabolic molecules; induces stem cell death and may induce apoptosis or autophagy in BC cells. Many of these anti-cancer effects are molecular subtype-specific. Metformin is most potent against triple negative (basal), followed by luminal BCs. The efficacy of metformin, as well as dose needed for the activity, is also modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration, cellular expression of the glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), and the organic cation transporter protein 1 (OCT1, which transports metformin into cells). This chapter summarizes the diverse clinical and preclinical data related to the anti-cancer effects of metformin, focused against breast cancer

    Molecular screening of microorganisms associated with discolored wood in dead European beech trees suffered from extreme drought event using next generation sequencing

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    Drought events weaken trees and make them vulnerable to attacks by diverse plant pathogens. Here, we propose a molecular method for fast screening of microorganisms associated with European beech decline after an extreme drought period (2018) in a forest of Thuringia, Germany. We used Illumina sequencing with a recent bioinformatics approach based on DADA2 to identify archaeal, bacterial, and fungal ASVs (amplicon sequence variants) based on bacterial and archaeal 16S and fungal ITS genes. We show that symptomatic beech trees are associated with both bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. Although the plant pathogen sequences were detected in both discolored and non-discolored wood areas, they were highly enriched in the discolored wood areas. We show that almost each individual tree was associated with a different combination of pathogens. Cytospora spp. and Neonectria coccinea were among the most frequently detected fungal pathogens, whereas Erwinia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacterial plant pathogens. We demonstrate that bacterial plant pathogens may be of major importance in beech decline

    Evaluasi Pelaksanaan dan Pengukuran Capaian Hasil Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh pada Jenjang Sekolah Dasar di Kecamatan Gondang Kabupaten Sragen

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    In 2019, the world was shocked by the outbreak of a deadly disease known as Covid 19. Explanation of dr. Merry Dame Cristy Pane said the Covid 19 disease outbreak caused by the Corona virus was found in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. The existence of this epidemic has a major impact, especially on the world of education. The appeal to maintain distance and implement health protocols to break the Corona chain resulted in the government issuing a circular containing recommendations for educational institutions to carry out distance learning (PJJ). The PJJ process is carried out in two ways, namely online and offline. This study aims to analyze the PJJ process in SD, describe the implementation of measuring learning outcomes, and evaluate the implementation of PJJ and measuring student learning outcomes. This type of research is an evaluative study with a descriptive analysis research design using the CIPP evaluation model developed by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1966. The data sources in this study are the results of interviews with the principal and teachers and the PJJ report documents made by the teacher. Data analysis techniques in this study were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. Data from interviews and documentation that were analyzed descriptively showed that the evaluation of the implementation of PJJ was quite good, but the evaluation of measuring learning outcomes was less effective

    Analysis of microbial populations in plastic-soil systems after exposure to high poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) load using high-resolution molecular technique

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    BACKGROUND: Bio-based and biodegradable plastics are considered as plastics of the future owing to their ability to decompose under various environmental conditions. However, their effects on the soil microbiome are poorly characterised. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an important bio-based and biodegradable plastic, polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA), on soil microbial diversity and community composition using high-resolution molecular technique (Illumina sequencing) targeting all three microbial domains: archaea, bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: Adding high load of PBSA to soil (6% (w/w)) caused a significant decline in archaeal (13%) and fungal (45%) richness and substantial changes in both bacterial (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria) and fungal (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes) community composition compared with no PBSA addition to soil. The combined effects of PBSA and (NHâ‚„)â‚‚SOâ‚„ fertilisation on the soil microbiome were much greater than the effects of PBSA alone. We only detected opportunistic human pathogens in low abundance on PBSA and in the surrounding soil. However, some plant pathogenic fungi were detected and/or enriched on the PBSA films and in surrounding soil. Apart from plant pathogens, many potential microbial control agents and plant growth-promoting microorganisms were also detected/enriched owing to PBSA addition. Adding high load of PBSA together with (NHâ‚„)â‚‚SOâ‚„ fertilisation can either eliminate some plant pathogens or enrich specific pathogens, especially Fusarium solani, which is economically important. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high load of bio-based and biodegradable PBSA plastic may negatively affect soil microbiome

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for supersymmetry through the pair production of electroweakinos with mass splittings near the electroweak scale and decaying via on-shell W and Z bosons is presented for a three-lepton final state. The analyzed proton-proton collision data taken at a center-of-mass energy of √s=13  TeV were collected between 2015 and 2018 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  fb−1. A search, emulating the recursive jigsaw reconstruction technique with easily reproducible laboratory-frame variables, is performed. The two excesses observed in the 2015–2016 data recursive jigsaw analysis in the low-mass three-lepton phase space are reproduced. Results with the full data set are in agreement with the Standard Model expectations. They are interpreted to set exclusion limits at the 95% confidence level on simplified models of chargino-neutralino pair production for masses up to 345 GeV

    Search for direct stau production in events with two hadronic tau-leptons in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector