61,549 research outputs found

    The Distribution of Natural Enemies of the Corn Leaf Aphid (Homoptera: Aphdidae) on Field Corn

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    (excerpt) The corn leaf aphid (CLA), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), is found on field corn in the midwest Cnited States each year. Except for infrequent and scattered outbreaks, CLA populations remain at low levels. Injury to corn occurs during tasseling (Snelling et aL 1941) and is caused by CLAs which are the progeny of colonizers that arrived 2-3 weeks earlier when the corn was in the whorl stage (Bryson 1934, Falter 1963)

    The ‘Sticky Elastica’: Delamination blisters beyond small\ud deformations

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    We consider the form of an elastic loop adhered to a rigid substrate: the ‘sticky Elastica’. In contrast to previous studies of the shape of delamination ‘blisters’, the theory developed accounts for deflections with large slope (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). Starting from the classical Euler Elastica we provide numerical results for the dimensions of such blisters for a variety of end-end confinements and develop asymptotic expressions that reproduce these results well up to the point of self-contact. Interestingly, we find that the width of such blisters does not grow monotonically with increased confinement. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by simple desktop experiments and suggest a new method for the measurement of the elastocapillary length for deformations that cannot be considered small

    Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

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    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the ‘ON’ state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between free, ‘pinned’ and ‘clamped’ states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed

    The sensitivity of Graphene ‘Snap-through’ to substrate\ud geometry

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    We study theoretically the deposition of Few Layer Graphene sheets onto a grooved substrate incorporating adhesion between substrate and sheet. We develop a model to understand the equilibrium of the sheet allowing for partial conformation of sheet to substrate. This model gives new insight into recent observations of ‘snap-through’ from flat to conforming states and emphasizes the crucial role of substrate shape in determining the nature of this transition. Our analytical results are consistent with numerical simulations using a van der Waals-like interaction . Finally we propose a novel substrate shape that should exhibit a continuous, rather than ‘snap-through’, transition

    A wide field survey at the Northern Ecliptic Pole: II. Number counts and galaxy colours in B_j, R, and K

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    We present a medium deep survey carried out in the three filters B_j, R and K. The survey covers homogeneously the central square degree around the Northern Ecliptic Pole (NEP) down to a completeness limit of 24.25, 23.0 and 17.5mag in B_j, R and K, respectively. While the near infrared data have been presented in the first paper of this series, here we concentrate on the optical data and the results based on the combined B_jRK-data. The unique combination of area and depth in our survey allows to perform a variety of investigations based on homogeneous material covering more than ten magnitudes in apparent brightness. We analyze the number counts for point-like and extended sources in B_j and R to determine the slopes in dlogN/dm and to test for possible breaks therein. While we can confirm the slopes found in previous works with a higher statistical significance, the largest uncertainty remaining for the amplitudes is galactic extinction. We determine the colour distributions of galaxies in B_j-R and R-K down to B_j=24.0 and K=18.0mag, respectively. The distributions in both colours are modeled using galaxy spectral evolution synthesis. We demonstrate that the standard models of galaxy evolution are unable to reproduce the steady reddening trend in R-K despite flawless fits to the colour distributions in the optical (B_j-R). The B_jRK data collected over a large area provides the opportunity to select rare objects like candidates for high-redshift galaxies and extremely red objects (EROs, R-K>5.0) and to determine their surface density. Our EROs are selected at an intermediate magnitude range and contain contribution from both galactic as well as extragalactic sources. At K<16.5mag, where a morphological classification is possible, the stellar component dominates the sample.Comment: Accepted for A&A, 14 pages, 10 figure
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