530 research outputs found

    Implications of WMAP Observations On the Population III Star Formation Processes

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    In an earlier paper (Cen 2003) we pointed out the strong likelihood for the universal reionization to occur twice, giving rise to a larger Thomson optical depth. Here we perform a more focused analysis of the Thomson optical depth in light of the WMAP observations. While the current uncertainties on the observed Thomson optical depth are still relatively large, with tau_e=0.17+-0.04 (68%) (Kogut et al 2003), important implications on Pop III star formation processes at high redshift can already be inferred. We are able to draw four conclusions: (1) in the absence of a top-heavy initial stellar mass function (IMF) for Pop III metal-free stars and without a dramatic upturn in the star formation efficiency and ionizing photon escape fraction at high redshift (z>6), we find tau_e =< 0.09; (2) with a top-heavy IMF for the Pop III metal-free stars and plausible star formation efficiency and ionizing photon escape fraction, it is expected that tau_e =< 0.12; (3) it is possible to reach tau_e = 0.15, if the metal enrichment efficiency of the intergalactic medium by Pop III stars is very low thus Pop III era is prolonged; (4) to reach tau_e >= 0.17 requires either of the following two conditions: the cosmological model power index n is positively tilted to n >= 1.03, Pop III star formation in minihalos with molecular hydrogen cooling has an efficiency c_*(H_2,III)>0.01 (with ionizing photon escape fraction greater than 30%). If the current observed value of Thomson optical depth withstands future data, we will have strong observational evidence that Pop III stars are massive and their formation efficiency may be much higher than current theoretical works suggest. Alternatively, there may be unknown, non-stellar ionizing sources at very high redshift.Comment: a numerical error corrected, conclusions strengthened, submitted to ApJ Letters, 13 page

    Simulation of stellar instabilities with vastly different timescales using domain decomposition

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    Strange mode instabilities in the envelopes of massive stars lead to shock waves, which can oscillate on a much shorter timescale than that associated with the primary instability. The phenomenon is studied by direct numerical simulation using a, with respect to time, implicit Lagrangian scheme, which allows for the variation by several orders of magnitude of the dependent variables. The timestep for the simulation of the system is reduced appreciably by the shock oscillations and prevents its long term study. A procedure based on domain decomposition is proposed to surmount the difficulty of vastly different timescales in various regions of the stellar envelope and thus to enable the desired long term simulations. Criteria for domain decomposition are derived and the proper treatment of the resulting inner boundaries is discussed. Tests of the approach are presented and its viability is demonstrated by application to a model for the star P Cygni. In this investigation primarily the feasibility of domain decomposition for the problem considered is studied. We intend to use the results as the basis of an extension to two dimensional simulations.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figures, published in MNRA

    Instabilities of captured shocks in the envelopes of massive stars

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    The evolution of strange mode instabilities into the non linear regime has been followed by numerical simulation for an envelope model of a massive star having solar chemical composition, M=50M_sun, T_eff=10^4K and L=1.17*10^6 L_sun. Contrary to previously studied models, for these parameters shocks are captured in the H-ionisation zone and perform rapid oscillations within the latter. A linear stability analysis is performed to verify that this behaviour is physical. The origin of an instability discovered in this way is identified by construction of an analytical model. As a result, the stratification turns out to be essential for instability. The difference to common stratification instabilities, e.g., convective instabilities, is discussed.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Nonradial oscillations in classical Cepheids: the problem revisited

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    We analyse the presence of nonradial oscillations in Cepheids, a problem which has not been theoretically revised since the work of Dziembowsky (1977) and Osaki (1977). Our analysis is motivated by a work of Moskalik et al. (2004) which reports the detec tion of low amplitude periodicities in a few Cepheids of the large Magellanic cloud. These newly discovered periodicities were interpreted as nonradial modes.} {Based on linear nonadiabatic stability analysis, our goal is to reanalyse the presence and stability of nonradial modes, taking into account improvement in the main input phys ics required for the modelling of Cepheids.} {We compare the results obtained from two different numerical methods used to solve the set of differential equations: a matrix method and the Ricatti method.} {We show the limitation of the matrix method to find low order p-modes (l<6l<6), because of their dual character in evolved stars such as Cepheids. For higher order p-modes, we find an excellent agreement between the two methods.} {No nonradial instability is found below l=5l=5, whereas many unstable nonradial modes exist for higher orders. We also find that nonradial modes remain unstable, even at hotter effective temperatures than the blue edge of the Cepheid instability strip, where no radial pulsations are expected.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A; 7 pages, 8 figure

    Galactic Twins of the Ring Nebula Around SN1987A and a Possible LBV-like Phase for Sk-69 202

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    Some core-collapse supernovae show clear signs of interaction with dense circumstellar material that often appears to be non-spherical. Circumstellar nebulae around supernova progenitors provide clues to the origin of that asymmetry in immediate pre-supernova evolution. Here I discuss outstanding questions about the formation of the ring nebula around SN1987A and some implications of similar ring nebulae around Galactic B supergiants. Several clues hint that SN1987A's nebula may have been ejected in an LBV-like event, rather than through interacting winds in a transition from a red supergiant to a blue supergiant.Comment: 2 pages, to appear in procedings of "Massive stars: fundamental parameters and circumstellar interactions", conference in honor of Virpi Niemela's 70th birthda

    A Multi-scale Approach for Simulations of Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy with Atomic Resolution

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    The distance dependence and atomic-scale contrast observed in nominal contact potential difference (CPD) signals recorded by KPFM on surfaces of insulating and semiconducting samples, have stimulated theoretical attempts to explain such effects. We attack this problem in two steps. First, the electrostatics of the macroscopic tip-cantilever-sample system is treated by a finite-difference method on an adjustable nonuniform mesh. Then the resulting electric field under the tip apex is inserted into a series of atomistic wavelet-based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results are shown for a realistic neutral but reactive silicon nano-scale tip interacting with a NaCl(001) sample. Bias-dependent forces and resulting atomic displacements are computed to within an unprecedented accuracy. Theoretical expressions for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) KPFM signals and for the corresponding local contact potential differences (LCPD) are obtained by combining the macroscopic and atomistic contributions to the electrostatic force component generated at the voltage modulation frequency, and evaluated for several tip oscillation amplitudes A up to 10 nm. Being essentially constant over a few Volts, the slope of atomistic force versus bias is the basic quantity which determines variations of the atomic-scale LCPD contrast. Already above A = 0.1 nm, the LCPD contrasts in both modes exhibit almost the same spatial dependence as the slope. In the AM mode, this contrast is approximately proportional to A−1/2A^{-1/2}, but remains much weaker than the contrast in the FM mode, which drops somewhat faster as A is increased. These trends are a consequence of the macroscopic contributions to the KPFM signal, which are stronger in the AM-mode and especially important if the sample is an insulator even at sub-nanometer separations where atomic-scale contrast appears.Comment: 19 pages, 13 figure

    Local Radiative Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities in Optically Thick Media

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    We examine the local conditions for radiative damping and driving of short wavelength, propagating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in static, optically thick, stratified equilibria. We show that so-called strange modes in stellar oscillation theory and magnetic photon bubbles are intimately related and are both fundamentally driven by the background radiation flux acting on compressible waves. We identify the necessary criteria for unstable driving of these waves, and show that this driving can exist in both gas and radiation pressure dominated media, as well as pure Thomson scattering media in the MHD case. The equilibrium flux acting on opacity fluctuations can drive both hydrodynamic acoustic waves and magnetosonic waves unstable. In addition, magnetosonic waves can be driven unstable by a combination of the equilibrium flux acting on density fluctuations and changes in the background radiation pressure along fluid displacements. We briefly describe the conditions under which these instabilities might be manifested in both main sequence stellar envelopes and accretion disks.Comment: 55 pages, revised version accepted for publication by ApJ. New appendix added justifying WKB analysi

    The Structure of the Homunculus. III. Forming a Disk and Bipolar Lobes in a Rotating Surface Explosion

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    We present a semi-analytic model for shaping the nebula around eta Carinae that accounts for the simultaneous production of bipolar lobes and an equatorial disk through a rotating surface explosion. Material is launched normal to the surface of an oblate rotating star with an initial kick velocity that scales approximately with the local escape speed. Thereafter, ejecta follow ballistic orbital trajectories, feeling only a central force corresponding to a radiatively reduced gravity. Our model is conceptually similar to the wind-compressed disk model of Bjorkman & Cassinelli, but we modify it to an explosion instead of a steady line-driven wind, we include a rotationally-distorted star, and we treat the dynamics somewhat differently. Continuum-driving avoids the disk inhibition that normally operates in line-driven winds. Our model provides a simple method by which rotating hot stars can simultaneously produce intrinsically bipolar and equatorial mass ejections, without an aspherical environment or magnetic fields. Although motivated by eta Carinae, the model may have generic application to other LBVs, B[e] stars, or SN1987A's nebula. When near-Eddington radiative driving is less influential, our model generalizes to produce bipolar morphologies without disks, as seen in many PNe.Comment: ApJ accepted, 9 page

    The Nature of the Radiative Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Radiatively Supported Thomson Atmospheres

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    Atmospheres having a significant radiative support are shown to be intrinsically unstable at luminosities above a critical fraction Gamma_crit ~ 0.5-0.85 of the Eddington limit, with the exact value depending on the boundary conditions. Two different types of absolute radiation-hydrodynamic instabilities of acoustic waves are found to take place even in the electron scattering dominated limit. Both instabilities grow over dynamical time scales and both operate on non radial modes. One is stationary and arises only after the effects of the boundary conditions are taken into account, while the second is a propagating wave and is insensitive to the boundary conditions. Although a significant wind can be generated by these instabilities even below the classical Eddington luminosity limit, quasi-stable configurations can exist beyond the Eddington limit due to the generally reduced effective opacity. The study is done using a rigorous numerical linear analysis of a gray plane parallel atmosphere under the Eddington approximation. We also present more simplified analytical explanations.Comment: 18 Pages, 7 figures, uses emulateapj5.sty, accepted to Ap