68,280 research outputs found

    Survival mediation analysis with the death-truncated mediator: The completeness of the survival mediation parameter

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    In medical research, the development of mediation analysis with a survival outcome has facilitated investigation into causal mechanisms. However, studies have not discussed the death-truncation problem for mediators, the problem being that conventional mediation parameters cannot be well-defined in the presence of a truncated mediator. In the present study, we systematically defined the completeness of causal effects to uncover the gap, in conventional causal definitions, between the survival and nonsurvival settings. We proposed three approaches to redefining the natural direct and indirect effects, which are generalized forms of the conventional causal effects for survival outcomes. Furthermore, we developed three statistical methods for the binary outcome of the survival status and formulated a Cox model for survival time. We performed simulations to demonstrate that the proposed methods are unbiased and robust. We also applied the proposed method to explore the effect of hepatitis C virus infection on mortality, as mediated through hepatitis B viral load

    Phase transitions in the Shastry-Sutherland lattice

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    Two recently developed theoretical approaches are applied to the Shastry-Sutherland lattice, varying the ratio J/JJ'/J between the couplings on the square lattice and on the oblique bonds. A self-consistent perturbation, starting from either Ising or plaquette bond singlets, supports the existence of an intermediate phase between the dimer phase and the Ising phase. This existence is confirmed by the results of a renormalized excitonic method. This method, which satisfactorily reproduces the singlet triplet gap in the dimer phase, confirms the existence of a gapped phase in the interval 0.66<J/J<0.860.66<J'/J<0.86Comment: Submited for publication in Phys. Rev.

    A Characterization of Subspaces and Quotients of Reflexive Banach Spaces with Unconditional Bases

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    We prove that the dual or any quotient of a separable reflexive Banach space with the unconditional tree property has the unconditional tree property. Then we prove that a separable reflexive Banach space with the unconditional tree property embeds into a reflexive Banach space with an unconditional basis. This solves several long standing open problems. In particular, it yields that a quotient of a reflexive Banach space with an unconditional finite dimensional decomposition embeds into a reflexive Banach space with an unconditional basis

    Phase diagram of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

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    The exact macroscopic wave functions of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice beyond the tight-binding approximation are studied by solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The phase diagram for superfluid and insulator phases of the condensates is determined analytically according to the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, which are seen to be traveling matter waves.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figure

    Non-Markovian disentanglement dynamics of two-qubit system

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    We investigated the disentanglement dynamics of two-qubit system in Non-Markovian approach. We showed that only the couple strength with the environment near to or less than fine-structure constant 1/137, entanglement appear exponential decay for a certain class of two-qubit entangled state. While the coupling between qubit and the environment is much larger, system always appears the sudden-death of entanglement even in the vacuum environment.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figure

    The Halo Occupation Distribution of X-ray-Bright Active Galactic Nuclei: A Comparison with Luminous Quasars

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    We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z~1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGN in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z~1.2, we derive a median mass of (1.02+0.21/-0.23)x10^{13} Msun/h for halos hosting central AGN and an upper limit of ~10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5-sigma level) that X-ray AGN reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically-selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z~1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGN is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N^{2}/A~5x10^{6} deg^{-2} (with N the number of AGN in a survey area of A deg^{2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, accepted in Ap