643 research outputs found

    Short-term intervention complemented by wearable technology improves Trichotillomania – A naturalistic single-case report

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    There is a growing interest in using wearable technology for the treatment of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), such as Trichotillomania. Yet, to our knowledge, few studies address the applicability and use of wearable technology as a therapeutic element in more naturalistic situations. Here we would like to introduce its potential use combined with a Habit-Reversal Training in a single-case experimental design. In practice, individuals with BFRBs frequently show complex constellations of psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, the here presented participant was diagnosed with Trichotillomania as well as comorbid ADHD and examination phobia. The participant was offered to wear an unobtrusive and user-friendly vibration device that sent an alarm when her critical hairpulling behaviors occurred. The complementing Habit-Reversal Training included an Awareness Training supported by the vibration alarm of the wearable device. It further included a Competing Response Training by learning benign behaviors that could replace the hairpulling behavior. The frequency of hairpulling episodes was assessed using daily self-reports and by using the monitoring function of the wearable device. The intervention procedure was implemented into the participant’s everyday life and evaluated over the course of 214 days. The results indicated a significant reduction in the daily episodes of hair pulling. Our preliminary findings suggest that the here applied intervention has the potential to effectively treat Trichotillomania in individuals with comorbid disorders in psychotherapeutic outpatient care. Certainly, group-studies will need to further validate the approach’s effectiveness

    Maclyn McCarty (1911-2005)

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    "If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants" (letter of Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke). This well-known sentence of Newton finds its correct meaning in biology through the work of Oswald Avery (1877-1955), Colin MacLeod (1909-1972), and Maclyn McCarty (1911-2005) that was published in 1944 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, which showed that DNA carried genetic information. These giants of molecular biology attained scientific evidence to provide shoulders strong enough to allow Crick and Watson to build on the foundations laid down by this group to postulate, 9 years later, the double-helix model of DNA. Maclyn McCarty died in New York on January 3, 2005, at age 93. At the time of his death, he was an active editor of the above-mentioned journal, which is published by The Rockefeller University.Peer reviewe

    Introducing a core curriculum for respiratory sleep practitioners

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    The background and purpose of the HERMES (Harmonising Education in Respiratory Medicine for European Specialists) initiative has been discussed at length in previous articles [1-3]. This article aims to provide more detailed and specific insight into the process and methodology of the Sleep HERMES Task Force in developing a core curriculum in respiratory sleep medicine

    Position paper on the use of mandibular advancement devices in adults with sleep-related breathing disorders: A position paper of the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft Zahnaerztliche Schlafmedizin, DGZS)

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    Custom-made mandibular advancement devices are an effective treatment option for snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Evidence-based data indicates their efficacy, and international sleep societies recommend oral appliance (OA) therapy for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The following position paper by the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (DGZS) is to guide the interdisciplinary team (sleep physician and sleep disorder dentist) in detail when to prescribe oral appliances. This position paper supports the responsible use of OA as an effective treatment option for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The paper advises of proper indication regarding OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), and dentition. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary approach of oral appliance therapy and suggests treatment under the guidance of dentists trained in dental sleep medicine

    Risk of betel chewing for oesophageal cancer in Taiwan

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    Among 104 cases of squamous-cell oesophageal carcinoma patients and 277 controls in Taiwan, after adjusting for cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and other confounders, we found that subjects who chewed from 1 to 495 betel-year and more than 495 betel-years (about 20 betel quid per day for 20 years) had 3.6-fold (95% Cl = 1.3–10.1) and 9.2-fold risk (95% Cl = 1.8–46.7), respectively, of developing oesophageal cancer, compared to those who did not chew betel. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.co

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment reduces glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in obstructive sleep apnea patients with concomitant weight loss: Longitudinal data from the ESADA

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    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of developing metabolic disease such as diabetes. The effects of positive airway pressure on glycemic control are contradictory. We therefore evaluated the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a large cohort of OSA patients after long-term treatment with positive airway pressure. HbA1c levels were assessed in a subsample of the European Sleep Apnea Database [n=1608] at baseline and at long-term follow up with positive airway pressure therapy (mean 378.9±423.0 days). In a regression analysis, treatment response was controlled for important confounders. Overall, HbA1c decreased from 5.98±1.01% to 5.93±0.98% (p=0.001). Patient subgroups with a more pronounced HbA1c response included patients with diabetes (−0.15±1.02, p=0.019), those with severe OSA baseline (−0.10±0.68, p=0.005), those with morbid obesity (−0.20±0.81, p<0.001). The strongest HbA1c reduction was observed in patients with a concomitant weight reduction >5 kilos (−0.38±0.99, p<0.001). In robust regression analysis, severe OSA (p=0.038) and morbid obesity (p=0.005) at baseline, and weight reduction >5 kilos (p<0.001) during follow up were independently associated with a reduction of HbA1c following PAP treatment. In contrast, PAP treatment alone without weight reduction was not associated with significant Hb1Ac reduction. In conclusion, positive airway pressure therapy is associated with HbA1c reduction in patients with severe OSA, in morbidly obese patients. and most obviously in those with significant weight lost during the follow-up. Our study underlines the importance to combine positive airway pressure use with adjustments in lifestyle to substantially modify metabolic complications in OSA
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