50 research outputs found

    Hemijska karakterizacija i bioloŔka svojstva polisaharidnih ekstrakata gljiva Fomes fomentarius, Auricularia auricula-judae i Sparassis crispa

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    ector of functional food is more and more appreciated by modern market and consumers. Food is energy, medicine, philosophy, trend and science, now more than ever. Claiming that some type of food has beneficial effect on human health without proving it is past. Active components have to be identified, as well as their biological properties. Furthermore, those components have to be extracted, and the extraction procedure has to be economically justified. Medicinal mushrooms fulfill all listed characteristics, since they contain active compounds like polysaccharides, proteins, triterpene, and phenolic compounds. Polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms are marked as the most complex molecules in nature, which makes them excellent immune response modulators. Biological effects of mushrooms polysaccharides are various due to the differences in their structure, molecular mass, conformation, and water solubility. Although the mechanisms of their action are not completely clear, it was noticed that the ability to dissolve in water strongly affects mushroomā€™s polysaccharides biological activity. Extraction procedure can have negative impact on biological effect of these molecules, too. The aim of this thesis was to obtain polysaccharide extracts of selected mushroom species, and to modify their structure with enzymes which hydrolyze Ī±-D-glucoside bondages. Then, to characterize extracts, and to examine their biological activity (antimicrobial, antioxidative, cytotoxic and the ability to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)). Finally, the extracts were compared, and based on the results of applied methods their chemical characteristics were connected with biological activities. This approach should enable the selection of optimal conditions for the production of biologicaly active mushroom polysaccharides. Overall, results should provide the standardized procedure for the most efficient utilization of mushroom extracts. Polysaccharides of selected mushrooms, Fomes fomentarius, Auricularia auricula-judae and Sparassis crispa, were extracted by hot water and alkali extraction, while crude water extractswere further purified by dialysis...Savremeno tržiÅ”te i potroÅ”ači sve viÅ”e prepoznaju sektor funkcionalne hrane. Hrana je viÅ”e nego ikad energija, medicina, filozofija, trend ali i nauka. Tako viÅ”e nije dovoljno tvrditi da je neka namirnica blagotvorna po zdravlje čoveka. Potrebno je identifikovati aktivne komponente, utvrditi koje bioloÅ”ke osobine ispoljavaju, a potom i na koji način ih je moguće izolovati, te postupak učiniti komercijalnim. Medicinske gljive predstavljaju upravo takvu namirnicu, jer sadrže brojna aktivna jedinjenja poput polisaharida, fenolnih jedinjenja, proteina, triterpena. Polisaharidi gljiva najkompleksniji su molekuli u prirodi i kao takvi modulatori imunog odgovora. BioloÅ”ki odgovori polisaharida su raznovrsni Å”to je posledica različite građe, molekulske mase, konformacije i rastvorljivosti ovih molekula. Iako mehanizmi delovanja nisu potpuno razjaÅ”njeni uočeno je da bioloÅ”ki efekat polisaharida gljiva može biti umanjen zbog relativno male rastvorljivosti u vodi. Takođe, postupak ekstrakcije može se negativno odraziti na bioloÅ”ka svojstva ekstrakta. Cilj ove teze bilŠ¾ je dobijanje polisaharidnih ekstrakata odabranih gljiva te njihova strukturna modifikacija primenom specifičnih enzima koji vrÅ”e hidrolizu Ī±-D-glikozidnih veza. Zatim, hemijska karakterizacija ekstrakata, a potom ispitivanje bioloÅ”kih osobina (antimikrobnih, antioksidativnih, citotoksičnosti i sposobnosti inhibicije angiotenzin I-konvertujućeg enzima (ACE)). Konačno, ekstrakti su upoređeni na osnovu rezultata primenjenih metoda, te su njihove hemijske osobine dovedene u vezu sa bioloÅ”kim svojstvima. To je trebalo da omogući selekciju optimalnih uslova za dobijanje bioloÅ”ki aktivnih polisaharida gljiva, i tako obezbedi standardizacija postupka za njihovo najbolje iskoriŔćenje. Ekstrakcija polisaharida odabranih gljiva, Fomes fomentarius, Auricularia auricula-judae i Sparassis crispa, izvrÅ”ena je postupcima vrele vodene i alkalne ekstrakcije, a sirovi vodeni ekstrakt je i naknadno prečiŔćen dijalizom. Sirovi polisaharidni ekstrakti modifikovani su sukcesivnim dodavanjem izoamilaze, Ī²-amilaze, Ī±-amilaze i pronaze. Hemijska karakterizacija ekstrakata sprovedena je primenom Megazyme glukanskog kita, spektrofotometrijskim određivanjem sadržaja ukupnih ugljenih hidrata, proteina i fenolnih jedinjenja..

    Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in maitake cultivation

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    The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom) fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG)-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom

    An insight into in vitro antioxidant activity of Cantharellus cibarius hot water extract for the potential application in meat products

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    The current research was undertaken to estimate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Cantharellus cibarius mushroom extracted by boiling in water for 30 minutes. Several previous studies have shown that the addition of edible mushrooms in meat products affects the reduction of lipid oxidation and prolongs the shelf-life of the final products. Antioxidant capacity of C. cibarius was measured using the following methods: reducing power ability, lipid peroxidation assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Reducing power and antioxidant activity assays of C. cibarius hot water extract showed low antioxidant activity. CUPRAC assay demonstrated positive effect only at the concentration of 10 mg/mL, whereas DPPH radical scavenging activity showed moderate antioxidant activity in comparison with culinary-medicinal mushrooms, with the effective concentration (EC50) from 7.41 mg/mL

    Nutraceutical properties of the methanolic extract of edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (Fries): primary mechanisms

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    The methanolic extract of the wild edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (chanterelle) was analyzed for in vitro antioxidative, cytotoxic, antihypertensive and antibacterial activities. Various primary and secondary metabolites were found. Phenols were the major antioxidant components found in the extract (49.8 mg g(-1)), followed by flavonoids, whose content was approximately 86% of the total phenol content. Antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods, was high for inhibition of lipid peroxidation (EC50 = 1.21 mg mL(-1)) and chelating ability (EC50 = 0.64 mg mL(-1)). The antioxidant activity of the C. cibarius methanol extract was achieved through chelating iron compared to hydrogen atom and/or electron transfer. The extract showed good selectivity in cytotoxicity on human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453 and human myelogenous leukemia K562, compared to normal control human fetal lung fibroblasts MRC-5 and human lung bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B. The extract had inhibitory activity against angiotensin converting I enzyme (ACE) (IC50 = 0.063 mg mL(-1)). The extract revealed selective antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria with the highest potential against E. faecalis. The medicinal and health benefits, observed in wild C. cibarius mushroom, seem an additional reason for its traditional use as a popular delicacy food

    Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Antiadhesion and Antibiofilm-Forming Effects of Antimicrobial Active Mushroom Extracts on Food-Borne Pathogens

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    The problem of microbial biofilms has come to the fore alongside food, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industrialization. The development of new antibiofilm products has become urgent, but it includes bioprospecting and is time and money-consuming. Contemporary efforts are directed at the pursuit of effective compounds of natural origin, also known as ā€œgreenā€ agents. Mushrooms appear to be a possible new source of antibiofilm compounds, as has been demonstrated recently. The existing modeling methods are directed toward predicting bacterial biofilm formation, not in the presence of antibiofilm materials. Moreover, the modeling is almost exclusively targeted at biofilms in healthcare, while modeling related to the food industry remains under-researched. The present study applied an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to analyze the anti-adhesion and anti-biofilm-forming effects of 40 extracts from 20 mushroom species against two very important food-borne bacterial species for food and food-related industriesā€”Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis. The models developed in this study exhibited high prediction quality, as indicated by high r2 values during the training cycle. The best fit between the modeled and measured values was observed for the inhibition of adhesion. This study provides a valuable contribution to the field, supporting industrial settings during the initial stage of biofilm formation, when these communities are the most vulnerable, and promoting innovative and improved safety management. Ā© 2023 by the authors

    Immobilization of Chaga extract in alginate beads for modified release: simplicity meets efficiency

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    Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is a parasitic fungus, which has been used in traditional medicine in Russia and other northern European countries in the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal andliver diseases. It has been a subject of intensive researchrecently, confirming many of its health-beneficial effects. In order to obtain a product that would allow modified and prolonged release of the Chaga's active metabolites, hot water Chaga extract was immobilized using calcium - alginate. The extract, which was predominantly composed of carbohydrates (57 %), also contained a relatively high amount of antioxidants/phenolic compounds (130 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract) and exhibited pronounced radical scavenging activity. It showed significant antibacterial activity as well, inhibiting growth of tested bacterial strains at concentrations of 1.25-20 mg/mL. Entrapment efficiency was about 80 %, and the extract-alginate system showed pH-dependant extract release; there was negligible release at pH 1.75 (gastric pH), and the release gradually increased with the increase in pH, reaching similar to 43 % of immobilized extract at pH 8.5 after 90 min. Such a product could be used as a dietary supplement, adjuvant in therapy of gastrointestinal diseases or as a food additive

    Bioprospecting of Selected Species of Polypore Fungi from the Western Balkans

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    Growing mushrooms means meeting challenges while aiming for sustainability and circularity. Wherever the producer is located, commercial strains are the same originating from several producers. Customized strains adapted to local conditions are urgently needed. Before introducing new species to the strain development pipeline, the chemical characterization and biological activity of wild ones need to be assessed. Accordingly, the mycoceutical potential of five polypore mushroom species from Serbia was evaluated including: secondary metabolite composition, oxidative damage prevention, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The phenolic pattern was comparable in all samples, but the amounts of specific chemicals varied. Hydroxybenzoic acids were the primary components. All samples had varying quantities of ascorbic acid, carotene, and lycopene, and showed a pronounced inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPx) and ability to scavenge HOā€¢. Extracts were more potent tyrosinase inhibitors but unsuccessful when faced with ACE. Fomitopsis pinicola had the strongest anti-tumor efficacy while Ganoderma lucidum demonstrated strong selectivity in anti-tumor effect in comparison to normal cells. The evaluated species provided a solid foundation for commercial development while keeping local ecology in mind

    Effects of agaricus bisporus mushroom extract on honey bees infected with nosema ceranae

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    Agaricus bisporus water crude extract was tested on honey bees for the first time. The first part of the cage experiment was set for selecting one concentration of the A. bisporus extract. Concentration of 200 Āµg/g was further tested in the second part of the experiment where bee survival and food consumption were monitored together with Nosema infection level and expression of five genes (abaecin, hymenoptaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and vitellogenin) that were evaluated in bees sampled on days 7 and 15. Survival rate of Nosema-infected bees was significantly greater in groups fed with A. bisporus-enriched syrup compared to those fed with a pure sucrose syrup. Besides, the anti-Nosema effect of A. bisporus extract was greatest when applied from the third day which coincides with the time of infection with N. ceranae. Daily food consumption did not differ between the groups indicating good acceptability and palatability of the extract. A. bisporus extract showed a stimulative effect on four out of five monitored genes. Both anti-Nosema and nutrigenomic effects of A. bisporus extract were observed when supplementation started at the moment of N. ceranae infection or preventively (before or simultaneously with the infection)

    Impact of grape pomace as a cultivation substrate on the Pleurotus ostreatus chemical and biological properties

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    The objective of this study was to develop a single quality index of chemical characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus extracts on 7th and 14th day of its shelf life, derived from the mushroom fruiting bodies. P. ostreatus was cultivated on four substrates containing different ratio of wine industry waste-grape pomace (P) and wheat straw (S): 100P, 80P20S, 50P50S, 20P80S. Four quality parameters of P. ostreatus mushroom extracts, i.e. antioxidative parameters: ABTS+ and DPPHā€¢ free radical scavenging capability, total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total polysaccharides (TPS) were used to define the final extract quality index. Analysis indicated 100P and 80P20S as the samples cultivated on the substrate with higher percent of grape pomace, as the best quality at the 7th day of its shelf life. On the other hand, final quality score indicated 50P50S and 20P80S, cultivated on a substrate with a lower percent of grape pomace, as the best quality samples at the 14th day of its shelf life. According to the results, samples cultivated on a higher pomace content substrate are of better quality in a shorter storage time period
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