2,856 research outputs found

    Optimization and performance measurements of ROOT-based data formats in the ATLAS experiment

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    The interplay of the ATLAS persistent event data model and the ROOT based I/O backend was studied in order to improve the read performance and disk size of ATLAS data formats for simulation, reconstruction and data analysis. The enabling of several native ROOT features, such as basket ordering and the tree cache, has lead to significant improvements in dedicated test setups using local disks, file servers managed by dCache, DPM and xrootd. After implementation in the ATLAS Athena framework, tests in more realistic environments were done. The functionality of the improvements and results from the performance tests are reported

    Analysing I/O bottlenecks in LHC data analysis on grid storage resources

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    We describe recent I/O testing frameworks that we have developed and applied within the UK GridPP Collaboration, the ATLAS experiment and the DPM team, for a variety of distinct purposes. These include benchmarking vendor supplied storage products, discovering scaling limits of SRM solutions, tuning of storage systems for experiment data analysis, evaluating file access protocols, and exploring I/O read patterns of experiment software and their underlying event data models. With multiple grid sites now dealing with petabytes of data, such studies are becoming essential. We describe how the tests build, and improve, on previous work and contrast how the use-cases differ. We also detail the results obtained and the implications for storage hardware, middleware and experiment software

    Efficient HTTP based I/O on very large datasets for high performance computing with the libdavix library

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    Remote data access for data analysis in high performance computing is commonly done with specialized data access protocols and storage systems. These protocols are highly optimized for high throughput on very large datasets, multi-streams, high availability, low latency and efficient parallel I/O. The purpose of this paper is to describe how we have adapted a generic protocol, the Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) to make it a competitive alternative for high performance I/O and data analysis applications in a global computing grid: the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. In this work, we first analyze the design differences between the HTTP protocol and the most common high performance I/O protocols, pointing out the main performance weaknesses of HTTP. Then, we describe in detail how we solved these issues. Our solutions have been implemented in a toolkit called davix, available through several recent Linux distributions. Finally, we describe the results of our benchmarks where we compare the performance of davix against a HPC specific protocol for a data analysis use case.Comment: Presented at: Very large Data Bases (VLDB) 2014, Hangzho

    Aging Studies for the Large Honeycomb Drift Tube System of the Outer Tracker of HERA-B

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker consists of drift tubes folded from polycarbonate foil and is operated with Ar/CF4/CO2 as drift gas. The detector has to stand radiation levels which are similar to LHC conditions. The first prototypes exposed to radiation in HERA-B suffered severe radiation damage due to the development of self-sustaining currents (Malter effect). In a subsequent extended R&D program major changes to the original concept for the drift tubes (surface conductivity, drift gas, production materials) have been developed and validated for use in harsh radiation environments. In the test program various aging effects (like Malter currents, gain loss due to anode aging and etching of the anode gold surface) have been observed and cures by tuning of operation parameters have been developed.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the International Workshop On Aging Phenomena In Gaseous Detectors, 2-5 Oct 2001, Hamburg, German

    The Outer Tracker Detector of the HERA-B Experiment Part I: Detector

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker is a large system of planar drift chambers with about 113000 read-out channels. Its inner part has been designed to be exposed to a particle flux of up to 2.10^5 cm^-2 s^-1, thus coping with conditions similar to those expected for future hadron collider experiments. 13 superlayers, each consisting of two individual chambers, have been assembled and installed in the experiment. The stereo layers inside each chamber are composed of honeycomb drift tube modules with 5 and 10 mm diameter cells. Chamber aging is prevented by coating the cathode foils with thin layers of copper and gold, together with a proper drift gas choice. Longitudinal wire segmentation is used to limit the occupancy in the most irradiated detector regions to about 20 %. The production of 978 modules was distributed among six different laboratories and took 15 months. For all materials in the fiducial region of the detector good compromises of stability versus thickness were found. A closed-loop gas system supplies the Ar/CF4/CO2 gas mixture to all chambers. The successful operation of the HERA-B Outer Tracker shows that a large tracker can be efficiently built and safely operated under huge radiation load at a hadron collider.Comment: 28 pages, 14 figure

    The Outer Tracker Detector of the HERA-B Experiment. Part II: Front-End Electronics

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker is a large detector with 112674 drift chamber channels. It is exposed to a particle flux of up to 2x10^5/cm^2/s thus coping with conditions similar to those expected for the LHC experiments. The front-end readout system, based on the ASD-8 chip and a customized TDC chip, is designed to fulfil the requirements on low noise, high sensitivity, rate tolerance, and high integration density. The TDC system is based on an ASIC which digitizes the time in bins of about 0.5 ns within a total of 256 bins. The chip also comprises a pipeline to store data from 128 events which is required for a deadtime-free trigger and data acquisition system. We report on the development, installation, and commissioning of the front-end electronics, including the grounding and noise suppression schemes, and discuss its performance in the HERA-B experiment

    Measurement of the J/Psi Production Cross Section in 920 GeV/c Fixed-Target Proton-Nucleus Interactions

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    The mid-rapidity (dsigma_(pN)/dy at y=0) and total sigma_(pN) production cross sections of J/Psi mesons are measured in proton-nucleus interactions. Data collected by the HERA-B experiment in interactions of 920 GeV/c protons with carbon, titanium and tungsten targets are used for this analysis. The J/Psi mesons are reconstructed by their decay into lepton pairs. The total production cross section obtained is sigma_(pN)(J/Psi) = 663 +- 74 +- 46 nb/nucleon. In addition, our result is compared with previous measurements

    Search for the Flavor-Changing Neutral Current Decay D0μ+μD^0 \to \mu^+\mu^- with the HERA-B Detector

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    We report on a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay D0μ+μD^0 \to \mu^+\mu^- using 50×10650 \times 10^6 events recorded with a dimuon trigger in interactions of 920 GeV protons with nuclei by the HERA-B experiment. We find no evidence for such decays and set a 90% confidence level upper limit on the branching fraction Br(D0μ+μ)<2.0×106Br(D^0 \to \mu^+\mu^-) <2.0 \times 10^{-6}.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures (of which 1 double), paper to be submitted to Physics Letters

    Inclusive V0V^0 Production Cross Sections from 920 GeV Fixed Target Proton-Nucleus Collisions

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    Inclusive differential cross sections dσpA/dxFd\sigma_{pA}/dx_F and dσpA/dpt2d\sigma_{pA}/dp_t^2 for the production of \kzeros, \lambdazero, and \antilambda particles are measured at HERA in proton-induced reactions on C, Al, Ti, and W targets. The incident beam energy is 920 GeV, corresponding to s=41.6\sqrt {s} = 41.6 GeV in the proton-nucleon system. The ratios of differential cross sections \rklpa and \rllpa are measured to be 6.2±0.56.2\pm 0.5 and 0.66±0.070.66\pm 0.07, respectively, for \xf 0.06\approx-0.06. No significant dependence upon the target material is observed. Within errors, the slopes of the transverse momentum distributions dσpA/dpt2d\sigma_{pA}/dp_t^2 also show no significant dependence upon the target material. The dependence of the extrapolated total cross sections σpA\sigma_{pA} on the atomic mass AA of the target material is discussed, and the deduced cross sections per nucleon σpN\sigma_{pN} are compared with results obtained at other energies.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures, 5 table

    Open and Hidden Charm Production in 920 GeV Proton-Nucleus Collisions

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    The HERA-B collaboration has studied the production of charmonium and open charm states in collisions of 920 GeV protons with wire targets of different materials. The acceptance of the HERA-B spectrometer covers negative values of xF up to xF=-0.3 and a broad range in transverse momentum from 0.0 to 4.8 GeV/c. The studies presented in this paper include J/psi differential distributions and the suppression of J/psi production in nuclear media. Furthermore, production cross sections and cross section ratios for open charm mesons are discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 9 figures, to be published in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm & Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04), Chicago, IL, June 27 - July 3, 200