112 research outputs found

    Electron transport and terahertz gain in quantum-dot cascades

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    Electron transport through quantum-dot (QD) cascades was investigated using the formalism of nonequilibrium Green's functions within the self-consistent Born approximation. Polar coupling to optical phonons, deformation potential coupling to acoustic phonons, as well as anharmonic decay of longitudinal optical phonons were included in the simulation. A QD cascade laser structure comprising two QDs per period was designed and its characteristics were simulated. Significant values of population inversion enabling lasing in the terahertz frequency range were predicted, with operating current densities being more than an order of magnitude smaller than in existing terahertz quantum-well-based quantum-cascade lasers

    Optically pumped intersublevel midinfrared lasers based on InAs-GaAs quantum dots

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    We propose an optically pumped laser based on intersublevel transitions in InAs-GaAs pyramidal self-Assembled quantum dots. A theoretical rate equations model of the laser is given in order to predict the dependence of the gain on pumping flux and temperature. The energy levels and wave functions were calculated using the 8-band k . p method where the symmetry of the pyramid was exploited to reduce the computational complexity. Carrier dynamics in the laser were modeled by taking both electron-longitudinal optical phonon and electron-longitudinal acoustic phonon interactions into account. The proposed laser emits at 14.6 μm with a gain of g ≈ 570 cm(-1) at the pumping flux Φ= 10(24) cm(-2) s(-1) and a temperature of T = 77 K. By varying the size of the investigated dots, laser emission in the spectral range 13-21 μm is predicted. In comparison to optically pumped lasers based on quantum wells, an advantage of the proposed type of laser is a lower pumping flux, due to the longer carrier lifetime in quantum dots, and also that both surface and edge emission are possible. The appropriate waveguide and cavity designs are presented, and by comparing the calculated values of the gain with the estimated losses, lasing is predicted even at room temperature for all the quantum dots investigated

    Optically pumped terahertz laser based on intersubband transitions in a GaN/AlGaN double quantum well

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    A design for a GaN/AlGaN optically pumped terahertz laser emitting at 34 µm (ΔE~36 meV) is presented. This laser uses a simple three-level scheme where the depopulation of the lower laser level is achieved via resonant longitudinal-optical-phonon emission. The quasibound energies and associated wave functions are calculated with the intrinsic electric field induced by the piezoelectric and the spontaneous polarizations. The structures based on a double quantum well were simulated and the output characteristics extracted using a fully self-consistent rate equation model with all relevant scattering processes included. Both electron-longitudinal-optical phonon and electron-acoustic-phonon interactions were taken into account. The carrier distribution in subbands was assumed to be Fermi–Dirac-like, with electron temperature equal to the lattice temperature, but with different Fermi levels for each subband. A population inversion of 12% for a pumping flux Φ=10(27) cm(–2) s(–1) at room temperature was calculated for the optimized structure. By comparing the calculated modal gain and estimated waveguide and mirror losses the feasibility of laser action up to room temperature is predicted

    Magnetic field tunable terahertz quantum well infrared photodetector

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    A theoretical model and a design of a magnetic field tunable CdMnTe/CdMgTe terahertz quantum well infrared photodetector are presented. The energy levels and the corresponding wavefunctions were computed from the envelope function Schr¨odinger equation using the effective mass approximation and accounting for Landau quantization and the giant Zeeman effect induced by magnetic confinement. The electron dynamics were modeled within the self-consistent coupled rate equations approach, with all relevant electron-longitudinal optical phonon and electron-longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering included. A perpendicular magnetic field varying between 0 T and 5 T, at a temperature of 1.5 K, was found to enable a large shift of the detection energy, yielding a tuning range between 24.1 meV and 34.3 meV, equivalent to 51.4 μm to 36.1 μm wavelengths. For magnetic fields between 1 T and 5 T, when the electron population of the QWIP is spin-polarized, a reasonably low dark current of ≤1.4×10–² A/cm² and a large responsivity of 0.36−0.64 A/W are predicted

    On the coherence/incoherence of electron transport in semiconductor heterostructure optoelectronic devices

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    This paper compares and contrasts different theoretical approaches based on incoherent electron scattering transport with experimental measurements of optoelectronic devices formed from semiconductor heterostructures. The Monte Carlo method which makes no a priori assumptions about the carrier distribution in momentum or phase space is compared with less computationally demanding energy-balance rate equation models which assume thermalised carrier distributions. It is shown that the two approaches produce qualitatively similar results for hole transport in p-type Si1-xGex/Si superlattices designed for terahertz emission. The good agreement of the predictions of rate equation calculations with experimental measurements of mid- and far-infrared quantum cascade lasers, quantum well infrared photodetectors and quantum dot infrared photodetectors substantiate the assumption of incoherent scattering dominating the transport in these quantum well based devices. However, the paper goes on to consider the possibility of coherent transport through the density matrix method and suggests an experiment that could allow coherent and incoherent transport to be distinguished from each other

    Clar Sextet Analysis of Triangular, Rectangular and Honeycomb Graphene Antidot Lattices

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    Pristine graphene is a semimetal and thus does not have a band gap. By making a nanometer scale periodic array of holes in the graphene sheet a band gap may form; the size of the gap is controllable by adjusting the parameters of the lattice. The hole diameter, hole geometry, lattice geometry and the separation of the holes are parameters that all play an important role in determining the size of the band gap, which, for technological applications, should be at least of the order of tenths of an eV. We investigate four different hole configurations: the rectangular, the triangular, the rotated triangular and the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the lattice geometry plays a crucial role for size of the band gap: the triangular arrangement displays always a sizable gap, while for the other types only particular hole separations lead to a large gap. This observation is explained using Clar sextet theory, and we find that a sufficient condition for a large gap is that the number of sextets exceeds one third of the total number of hexagons in the unit cell. Furthermore, we investigate non-isosceles triangular structures to probe the sensitivity of the gap in triangular lattices to small changes in geometry

    Validity and usability testing of a health systems guidance appraisal tool, the AGREE-HS

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    Health systems guidance (HSG) provides recommendations to address health systems challenges. No tools exist to inform HSG developers and users about the components of high quality HSG and to differentiate between HSG of varying quality. In response, we developed a tool to assist with the development, reporting and appraisal of HSG - the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-Health Systems (AGREE-HS). This paper reports on the validity, usability and initial measurement properties of the AGREE-HS.; To establish face validity (Study 1), stakeholders completed a survey about the AGREE-HS and provided feedback on its content and structure. Revisions to the tool were made in response. To establish usability (Study 2), the revised tool was applied to 85 HSG documents and the appraisers provided feedback about their experiences via an online survey. An initial test of the revised tool's measurement properties, including internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity, was conducted. Additional revisions to the tool were made in response.; In Study 1, the AGREE-HS Overview, User Manual, quality item content and structure, and overall assessment questions were rated favourably. Participants indicated that the AGREE-HS would be useful, feasible to use, and that they would apply it in their context. In Study 2, participants indicated that the quality items were easy to understand and apply, and the User Manual, usefulness and usability of the tool were rated favourably. Study 2 participants also indicated intentions to use the AGREE-HS.; The AGREE-HS comprises a User Manual, five quality items and two overall assessment questions. It is available at agreetrust.org