162 research outputs found

    Relationship Between Student Stress and INBDE Pass Rates: A Study Among Three Dental Schools

    Get PDF

    Association between Fluoride Exposure and Blood pressure

    Get PDF
    Objectives: This study investigated whether fluoride was associated with an increased prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in the United States. Methods: The study sample consisted of 2015–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged 13–17 years. Independent-samples t-tests, Chi-square tests, and regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 814 participants met the study criteria. The findings showed that the proportion of patients with high levels of water or plasma fluoride in the high BP group was higher than that in the normal BP group. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, neither water nor plasma fluoride levels were significantly associated with a high BP. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between either water or plasma fluoride levels and high BP. Further study is needed to exclude a dose dependent effect at higher levels of fluoride

    A National Study Exploring the Association Between Fluoride Levels and Dental Fluorosis

    Get PDF
    Importance: While the effects of fluoride on health have been widely researched, fewer high-quality studies examine the association of fluoride levels in water and dental fluorosis. Objective: To investigate the association between fluoride exposure from drinking water and dental fluorosis. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study used the 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2016). NHANES uses a complex sampling technique to develop nationally representative sample estimates of the US population that consists of interviews and physical assessments. Children and adolescents aged 6 to 15 years were included because NHANES contains their data for all 3 forms of fluoride measures: plasma fluoride levels, water levels of fluoride, and dietary fluoride supplementation. Data were analyzed from January 1 to April 30, 2023. Exposures: Water and plasma fluoride levels were measured by laboratory personnel. Dietary fluoride supplement data were self-reported. Main outcomes and measures: The Dean's Fluorosis Index was used to evaluate fluorosis status for each tooth. The dental fluorosis severity value was based on the second most affected tooth. Independent variables included plasma and water fluoride concentrations and dietary fluoride supplementation. An independent samples t test was used to compare fluoride exposures between groups, and Pearson correlation assessed the association between plasma and water fluoride levels. To assess whether fluoride exposures were associated with dental fluorosis, logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: There were 1543 participants in the 2013-2014 NHANES cycle (weighted proportion male, 51.9%; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.7] years) and 1452 in the 2015-2016 cycle (weighted proportion male, 52.6%; mean [SD] age, 11.1 [2.8] years). A weighted 87.3% exhibited some degree of fluorosis in the 2013-2014 cycle and 68.2% in the 2015-2016 cycle. Higher fluoride levels in water and plasma were significantly associated with higher odds of dental fluorosis (adjusted odds ratios, 2.378 [95% CI, 2.372-2.383] in the 2013-2014 cycle and 1.568 [95% CI, 1.564-1.571] in the 2015-2016 cycle). Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that exposure to higher concentrations of fluoride in water and having higher plasma levels of fluoride were associated with a greater risk of dental fluorosis. Further research can help policy makers develop policies that balance substantial caries prevention with the risk of dental fluorosis.</p

    Detection of heterozygous deletions and duplications in the MECP2 gene in Rett syndrome by Robust Dosage PCR (RD-PCR)

    Get PDF
    Fifty to eighty percent of Rett syndrome (RTT) cases have point mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MECP2). A fraction of MECP2 negative classical RTT patients has large heterozygous deletions. Robust Dosage PCR (RD-PCR) assays were developed as a rapid, convenient and accurate method to detect large heterozygous deletions and duplications. A blinded analysis was performed for 65 RTT cases from Portugal by RDPCR in the coding exons 2-4 of the MECP2 gene. Neither the patients with point mutations nor the non-classical RTT patients without point mutation had a deletion or duplication. One of remaining eight female patients with classical RTT without point mutation had a heterozygous deletion. This is the first report of a deletion spanning the entire MECP2 gene. The deletion was confirmed by southern blotting analysis and the deletion junction was localized 37kb upstream from exon 1 and 18kb downstream from exon 4. No duplications were detected. Our results suggest that RD-PCR is an accurate and convenient molecular diagnostic method

    CB1 Ligand AM251 induces weight loss and fat reduction in addition to increased systemic inflammation in diet-induced obesity

    Get PDF
    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle and decreases circulating levels of adiponectin. Endocannabinoid signaling is overactive in obesity, with some effects abated by antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). This research aimed to determine if treatment with the global CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats influenced adiponectin signaling in skeletal muscle and a “browning” of white adipose tissue (WAT) defined by UCP1 expression levels. Male Sprague Dawley rats consumed an HFD (21% fat) for 9 weeks before receiving daily intraperitoneal injections with vehicle or AM251 (3 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic functions were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and blood was harvested for the measurement of hormones and cytokines. Muscle citrate synthase activity was also measured. AM251 treatment decreased fat pad weight (epididymal, peri-renal, brown), and plasma levels of leptin, glucagon, ghrelin, and GLP-1, and increased PAI-1 along with a range of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; however, AM251 did not alter plasma adiponectin levels, skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity or mRNA expression of the genes measured in muscle. AM251 treatment had no effect on white fat UCP1 expression levels. AM251 decreased fat pad mass, altered plasma hormone levels, but did not induce browning of WAT defined by UCP1 mRNA levels or alter gene expression in muscle treated acutely with adiponectin, demonstrating the complexity of the endocannabinoid system and metabolism. The CB1 ligand AM251 increased systemic inflammation suggesting limitations on its use in metabolic disorders

    A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global

    Get PDF
    This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societallevel analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self- transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s a statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and withinsociety agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research
    corecore