29 research outputs found

    Collective filters: a new approach to analyze the gravitational-wave ringdown of binary black-hole mergers

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    We propose two frequency-domain filters to analyze ringdown signals of binary black hole mergers. The first rational filter is constructed based on a set of (arbitrary) quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of the remnant black holes, whereas the second full filter comes from the transmissivity of the remnant black holes. The two filters can remove corresponding QNMs from original time-domain ringdowns, while changing early inspiral signals in a trivial way - merely a time and phase shift. After filtering out dominant QNMs, we can visualize the existence of various subdominant effects. For example, by applying our filters to a GW150914-like numerical relativity (NR) waveform, we find second-order effects in the (l = 4, m = 4), (l = 5, m = 4) and (l = 5, m = 5) harmonics; the spherical-spheroidal mixing mode in the (l = 2,m = 2) harmonic; and a mixing mode in the (l = 2,m = 1) harmonic due to a gravitational recoil. In another NR simulation where two component spins are anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum, we also find retrograde modes. Additionally, we propose to use the rational filter to estimate the start time of a QNM. The filters are sensitive to the remnant properties (i.e., mass and spin) and thus have a potential application to future data analyses and parameter estimations. We also investigate the stability of the full filter. Its connection to the instability of QNM spectra is discussed

    Fully relativistic three-dimensional Cauchy-characteristic matching

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    A fully relativistic three-dimensional Cauchy-characteristic matching (CCM) algorithm is implemented in a numerical relativity code SpECTRE. The method is free of approximations and can be applied to any physical system. We test the algorithm with various scenarios, including the propagation of Teukolsky waves within a flat background, the perturbation of a Kerr black hole with a Teukolsky wave, and the injection of a gravitational-wave pulse from the characteristic grid. Our investigations reveal no numerical instabilities in the simulations. In addition, the tests indicate that the CCM algorithm effectively directs characteristic information into the inner Cauchy system, yielding higher precision in waveforms and smaller violations of Bondi-gauge constraints, especially when the outer boundary of the Cauchy evolution is at a smaller radius

    Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: scalar-field model in 3+1 dimensions

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    Binary black hole simulations become increasingly more computationally expensive with smaller mass ratios, partly because of the longer evolution time, and partly because the lengthscale disparity dictates smaller time steps. The program initiated by Dhesi et al. (arXiv:2109.03531) explores a method for alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the intermediate astrophysical range (10−4≲q≲10−210^{-4} \lesssim q \lesssim 10^{-2}), where purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region ("worldtube") much larger than the small black hole is excised from the numerical domain, and replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole. Here we apply this idea to a toy model of a scalar charge in a fixed circular geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless Klein-Gordon field. This is a first implementation of the worldtube excision method in full 3+1 dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, and discuss the steps towards applying it for evolving orbits and, ultimately, in the binary black-hole scenario. Our implementation is publicly accessible in the SpECTRE numerical relativity code.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figure

    Numerical relativity surrogate model with memory effects and post-Newtonian hybridization

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    Numerical relativity simulations provide the most precise templates for the gravitational waves produced by binary black hole mergers. However, many of these simulations use an incomplete waveform extraction technique -- extrapolation -- that fails to capture important physics, such as gravitational memory effects. Cauchy-characteristic evolution (CCE), by contrast, is a much more physically accurate extraction procedure that fully evolves Einstein's equations to future null infinity and accurately captures the expected physics. In this work, we present a new surrogate model, NRHybSur3dq8_\_CCE, built from CCE waveforms that have been mapped to the post-Newtonian (PN) BMS frame and then hybridized with PN and effective one-body (EOB) waveforms. This model is trained on 102 waveforms with mass ratios q≤8q\leq8 and aligned spins χ1z, χ2z∈[−0.8,0.8]\chi_{1z}, \, \chi_{2z} \in \left[-0.8, 0.8\right]. The model spans the entire LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) frequency band (with flow=20Hzf_{\text{low}}=20\text{Hz}) for total masses M≳2.25M⊙M\gtrsim2.25M_{\odot} and includes the ℓ≤4\ell\leq4 and (ℓ,m)=(5,5)(\ell,m)=(5,5) spin-weight −2-2 spherical harmonic modes, but not the (3,1)(3,1), (4,2)(4,2) or (4,1)(4,1) modes. We find that NRHybSur3dq8_\_CCE can accurately reproduce the training waveforms with mismatches ≲2×10−4\lesssim2\times10^{-4} for total masses 2.25M⊙≤M≤300M⊙2.25M_{\odot}\leq M\leq300M_{\odot} and can, for a modest degree of extrapolation, capably model outside of its training region. Most importantly, unlike previous waveform models, the new surrogate model successfully captures memory effects.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures. Accepted for publication in PR

    Extending black-hole remnant surrogate models to extreme mass ratios

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    Numerical-relativity surrogate models for both black-hole merger waveforms and remnants have emerged as important tools in gravitational-wave astronomy. While producing very accurate predictions, their applicability is limited to the region of the parameter space where numerical-relativity simulations are available and computationally feasible. Notably, this excludes extreme mass ratios. We present a machine-learning approach to extend the validity of existing and future numerical-relativity surrogate models toward the test-particle limit, targeting in particular the mass and spin of post-merger black-hole remnants. Our model is trained on both numerical-relativity simulations at comparable masses and analytical predictions at extreme mass ratios. We extend the gaussian-process-regression model NRSur7dq4Remnant, validate its performance via cross validation, and test its accuracy against additional numerical-relativity runs. Our fit, which we dub NRSur7dq4EmriRemnant, reaches an accuracy that is comparable to or higher than that of existing remnant models while providing robust predictions for arbitrary mass ratios.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures. Model publicly available at https://pypi.org/project/surfinB

    Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

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    Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment

    Cabbage and fermented vegetables : From death rate heterogeneity in countries to candidates for mitigation strategies of severe COVID-19

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    Large differences in COVID-19 death rates exist between countries and between regions of the same country. Some very low death rate countries such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, or the Balkans have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods. Although biases exist when examining ecological studies, fermented vegetables or cabbage have been associated with low death rates in European countries. SARS-CoV-2 binds to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). As a result of SARS-CoV-2 binding, ACE2 downregulation enhances the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT(1)R) axis associated with oxidative stress. This leads to insulin resistance as well as lung and endothelial damage, two severe outcomes of COVID-19. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the most potent antioxidant in humans and can block in particular the AT(1)R axis. Cabbage contains precursors of sulforaphane, the most active natural activator of Nrf2. Fermented vegetables contain many lactobacilli, which are also potent Nrf2 activators. Three examples are: kimchi in Korea, westernized foods, and the slum paradox. It is proposed that fermented cabbage is a proof-of-concept of dietary manipulations that may enhance Nrf2-associated antioxidant effects, helpful in mitigating COVID-19 severity.Peer reviewe

    Nrf2-interacting nutrients and COVID-19 : time for research to develop adaptation strategies

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    There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPAR gamma:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NF kappa B: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2 alpha:Elongation initiation factor 2 alpha). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT(1)R axis (AT(1)R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity

    Gravitational-wave echoes from numerical-relativity waveforms via space-time construction near merging compact objects

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    We propose a new approach toward reconstructing the late-time near-horizon geometry of merging binary black holes, and toward computing gravitational-wave echoes from exotic compact objects. A binary black-hole merger spacetime can be divided by a time-like hypersurface into a Black-Hole Perturbation (BHP) region, in which the space-time geometry can be approximated by homogeneous linear perturbations of the final Kerr black hole, and a nonlinear region. At late times, the boundary between the two regions is an infalling shell. The BHP region contains late-time gravitational-waves emitted toward the future horizon, as well as those emitted toward future null infinity. In this region, by imposing no-ingoing wave conditions at past null infinity, and matching out-going waves at future null infinity with waveforms computed from numerical relativity, we can obtain waves that travel toward the future horizon. In particular, the Newman-Penrose ψ0\psi_0 associated with the in-going wave on the horizon is related to tidal deformations measured by fiducial observers floating above the horizon. We further determine the boundary of the BHP region on the future horizon by imposing that ψ0\psi_0 inside the BHP region can be faithfully represented by quasi-normal modes. Using a physically-motivated way to impose boundary conditions near the horizon, and applying the so-called Boltzmann reflectivity, we compute the quasi-normal modes of non-rotating ECOs, as well as gravitational-wave echoes. We also investigate the detectability of these echoes in current and future detectors, and prospects for parameter estimation

    Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: scalar-field model in 3+1 dimensions

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    Binary black hole simulations become increasingly more computationally expensive with smaller mass ratios, partly because of the longer evolution time, and partly because the lengthscale disparity dictates smaller time steps. The program initiated by Dhesi et al. [Phys. Rev. D 104, 124002 (2021)] explores a method for alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the intermediate astrophysical range (10−4≲q≲10−2), where purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region (“worldtube”) much larger than the small black hole is excised from the numerical domain, and replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole. Here we apply this idea to a toy model of a scalar charge in a fixed circular geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless Klein-Gordon field. This is a first implementation of the worldtube excision method in full 3+1 dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, and discuss the steps toward applying it for evolving orbits and, ultimately, in the binary black-hole scenario. Our implementation is publicly accessible in the spectre numerical relativity code
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