11,469 research outputs found

    In situ estimation of ice crystal properties at the South Pole using LED calibration data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

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    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory instruments about 1 km3 of deep, glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. It uses 5160 photomultipliers to detect Cherenkov light emitted by charged relativistic particles. An unexpected light propagation effect observed by the experiment is an anisotropic attenuation, which is aligned with the local flow direction of the ice. We examine birefringent light propagation through the polycrystalline ice microstructure as a possible explanation for this effect. The predictions of a first-principles model developed for this purpose, in particular curved light trajectories resulting from asymmetric diffusion, provide a qualitatively good match to the main features of the data. This in turn allows us to deduce ice crystal properties. Since the wavelength of the detected light is short compared to the crystal size, these crystal properties include not only the crystal orientation fabric, but also the average crystal size and shape, as a function of depth. By adding small empirical corrections to this first-principles model, a quantitatively accurate description of the optical properties of the IceCube glacial ice is obtained. In this paper, we present the experimental signature of ice optical anisotropy observed in IceCube light-emitting diode (LED) calibration data, the theory and parameterization of the birefringence effect, the fitting procedures of these parameterizations to experimental data, and the inferred crystal properties.</p

    Improved measurement of CP violation parameters in Bs0→J/ψK+K− decays in the vicinity of the ϕ(1020) resonance

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    The decay-time-dependent C P asymmetry in B 0 s → J / ψ ( → μ + μ − ) K + K − decays is measured using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6     fb − 1 , collected with the LHCb detector at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Using a sample of approximately 349 000 B 0 s signal decays with an invariant K + K − mass in the vicinity of the ϕ ( 1020 ) resonance, the C P -violating phase ϕ s is measured, along with the difference in decay widths of the light and heavy mass eigenstates of the B 0 s − ¯ B 0 s system, Δ Γ s , and the difference of the average B 0 s and B 0 meson decay widths, Γ s − Γ d . The values obtained are ϕ s = − 0.039 ± 0.022 ± 0.006     rad , Δ Γ s = 0.0845 ± 0.0044 ± 0.0024     ps − 1 , and Γ s − Γ d = − 0.005 6 + 0.0013 − 0.0015 ± 0.0014     ps − 1 , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. These are the most precise single measurements to date and are consistent with expectations based on the Standard Model and with the previous LHCb analyses of this decay. These results are combined with previous independent LHCb measurements. The phase ϕ s is also measured independently for each polarization state of the K + K − system and shows no evidence for polarization dependence

    Measurement of CP Violation in B^{0}→ψ(→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-})K_{S}^{0}(→π^{+}π^{-}) Decays.