92 research outputs found

    Assessment of the thermal tissue models for the head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning

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    Purpose: To compare different thermal tissue models for head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning, and to assess the results using predicted and measured applied power data from clinical treatments. Methods: Three commonly used temperature models from literature were analysed: ‚Äúconstant baseline‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúconstant thermal stress‚ÄĚ and ‚Äútemperature dependent‚ÄĚ. Power and phase data of 93 treatments of 20 head and neck patients treated with the HYPERcollar3D applicator were used. The impact on predicted median temperature T50 inside the target region was analysed with maximum allowed temperature of 44 ¬įC in healthy tissue. The robustness of predicted T50 for the three models against the influence of blood perfusion, thermal conductivity and the assumed hotspot temperature level was analysed. Results: We found an average predicted T50 of 41.0 ¬Ī 1.3 ¬įC (constant baseline model), 39.9 ¬Ī 1.1 ¬įC (constant thermal stress model) and 41.7 ¬Ī 1.1 ¬įC (temperature dependent model). The constant thermal stress model resulted in the best agreement between the predicted power (P = 132.7 ¬Ī 45.9 W) and the average power measured during the hyperthermia treatments (P = 129.1 ¬Ī 83.0 W). Conclusion: The temperature dependent model predicts an unrealistically high T50. The power values for the constant thermal stress model, after scaling simulated maximum temperatures to 44 ¬įC, matched best to the average measured powers. We consider this model to be the most appropriate for temperature predictions using the HYPERcollar3D applicator, however further studies are necessary for developing of robust temperature model for tissues during heat stress.</p

    The MRS UAV System: Pushing the Frontiers of Reproducible Research, Real-world Deployment, and Education with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

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    We present a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle control (UAV) and estimation system for supporting replicable research through realistic simulations and real-world experiments. We propose a unique multi-frame localization paradigm for estimating the states of a UAV in various frames of reference using multiple sensors simultaneously. The system enables complex missions in GNSS and GNSS-denied environments, including outdoor-indoor transitions and the execution of redundant estimators for backing up unreliable localization sources. Two feedback control designs are presented: one for precise and aggressive maneuvers, and the other for stable and smooth flight with a noisy state estimate. The proposed control and estimation pipeline are constructed without using the Euler/Tait-Bryan angle representation of orientation in 3D. Instead, we rely on rotation matrices and a novel heading-based convention to represent the one free rotational degree-of-freedom in 3D of a standard multirotor helicopter. We provide an actively maintained and well-documented open-source implementation, including realistic simulation of UAV, sensors, and localization systems. The proposed system is the product of years of applied research on multi-robot systems, aerial swarms, aerial manipulation, motion planning, and remote sensing. All our results have been supported by real-world system deployment that shaped the system into the form presented here. In addition, the system was utilized during the participation of our team from the CTU in Prague in the prestigious MBZIRC 2017 and 2020 robotics competitions, and also in the DARPA SubT challenge. Each time, our team was able to secure top places among the best competitors from all over the world. On each occasion, the challenges has motivated the team to improve the system and to gain a great amount of high-quality experience within tight deadlines.Comment: 28 pages, 20 figures, submitted to Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems (JINT), for the provided open-source software see http://github.com/ctu-mr

    MRS Drone: A Modular Platform for Real-World Deployment of Aerial Multi-Robot Systems

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    This paper presents a modular autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform called the Multi-robot Systems (MRS) Drone that can be used in a large range of indoor and outdoor applications. The MRS Drone features unique modularity with respect to changes in actuators, frames, and sensory configuration. As the name suggests, the platform is specially tailored for deployment within a MRS group. The MRS Drone contributes to the state-of-the-art of UAV platforms by allowing smooth real-world deployment of multiple aerial robots, as well as by outperforming other platforms with its modularity. For real-world multi-robot deployment in various applications, the platform is easy to both assemble and modify. Moreover, it is accompanied by a realistic simulator to enable safe pre-flight testing and a smooth transition to complex real-world experiments. In this manuscript, we present mechanical and electrical designs, software architecture, and technical specifications to build a fully autonomous multi UAV system. Finally, we demonstrate the full capabilities and the unique modularity of the MRS Drone in various real-world applications that required a diverse range of platform configurations.Comment: 49 pages, 39 figures, accepted for publication to the Journal of Intelligent & Robotic System

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Measurements of top-quark pair differential cross-sections in the eőľe\mu channel in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector