1,863 research outputs found

    The role of GRK6 in animal models of Parkinson's Disease and L-DOPA treatment

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    G protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (GRK6) belongs to a family of kinases that phosphorylate GPCRs. GRK6 levels were found to be altered in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and D2 dopamine receptors are supersensitive in mice lacking GRK6 (GRK6-KO mice). To understand how GRK6 modulates the behavioral manifestations of dopamine deficiency and responses to L-DOPA, we used three approaches to model PD in GRK6-KO mice: 1) the cataleptic response to haloperidol; 2) introducing GRK6 mutation to an acute model of absolute dopamine deficiency, DDD mice; 3) hemiparkinsonian 6-OHDA model. Furthermore, dopamine-related striatal signaling was analyzed by assessing the phosphorylation of AKT/GSK3β and ERK1/2. GRK6 deficiency reduced cataleptic behavior, potentiated the acute effect of L-DOPA in DDD mice, reduced rotational behavior in hemi-parkinsonian mice, and reduced abnormal involuntary movements induced by chronic L-DOPA. These data indicate that approaches to regulate GRK6 activity could be useful in modulating both therapeutic and side-effects of L-DOPA

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    Test beam performance of a CBC3-based mini-module for the Phase-2 CMS Outer Tracker before and after neutron irradiation

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    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will undergo major upgrades to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 5–7.5×1034^{34} cm2^{-2}s1^{-1}. This High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will deliver a total of 3000–4000 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13–14 TeV. To cope with these challenging environmental conditions, the strip tracker of the CMS experiment will be upgraded using modules with two closely-spaced silicon sensors to provide information to include tracking in the Level-1 trigger selection. This paper describes the performance, in a test beam experiment, of the first prototype module based on the final version of the CMS Binary Chip front-end ASIC before and after the module was irradiated with neutrons. Results demonstrate that the prototype module satisfies the requirements, providing efficient tracking information, after being irradiated with a total fluence comparable to the one expected through the lifetime of the experiment

    Calibration of the CMS hadron calorimeters using proton-proton collision data at √s = 13 TeV