1,077 research outputs found

    Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila improves irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms and related behavioral disorders in mice

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    International audienceGut-brain communications disorders in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are associated with intestinal microbiota composition, increased gut permeability, and psychosocial disturbances. Symptoms of IBS are difficult to medicate, and hence much research is being made into alternative approaches. This study assesses the potential of a treatment with pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila for alleviating IBS-like symptoms in two mouse models of IBS with different etiologies. Two clinically relevant animal models were used to mimic IBS-like symptoms in C57BL6/J mice: the neonatal maternal separation (NMS) paradigm and the Citrobacter rodentium infection model. In both models, gut permeability, colonic sensitivity, fecal microbiota composition and colonic IL-22 expression were evaluated. The cognitive performance and emotional state of the animals were also assessed by several tests in the C. rodentium infection model. The neuromodulation ability of pasteurized A. muciniphila was assessed on primary neuronal cells from mice dorsal root ganglia using a ratiometric calcium imaging approach. The administration of pasteurized A. muciniphila significantly reduced colonic hypersensitivity in both IBS mouse models, accompanied by a reinforcement of the intestinal barrier function. Beneficial effects of pasteurized A. muciniphila treatment have also been observed on anxiety-like behavior and memory defects in the C. rodentium infection model. Finally, a neuroinhibitory effect exerted by pasteurized A. muciniphila was observed on neuronal cells stimulated with two algogenic substances such as capsaicin and inflammatory soup. Our findings demonstrate novel anti-hyperalgesic and neuroinhibitory properties of pasteurized A. muciniphila, which therefore may have beneficial effects in relieving pain and anxiety in subjects with IBS

    Quantitative Fecal Microbiota Profiles Relate to Therapy Response During Induction With Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Antagonist Infliximab in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Background The role of intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases is intensively researched. Pediatric studies on the relation between microbiota and treatment response are sparse. We aimed to determine whether absolute abundances of gut microbes characterize the response to infliximab induction in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Methods We recruited pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease introduced to infliximab at Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki. Stool samples were collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks for microbiota and calprotectin analyses. We defined treatment response as fecal calprotectin value Results At baseline, the intestinal microbiota in the treatment responsive group (n = 10) showed a higher absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales and a lower absolute abundance of Actinomycetales than nonresponders (n = 19). The level of inflammation according to fecal calprotectin showed no statistically significant association with the absolute abundances of fecal microbiota. The results on relative abundances differed from the absolute abundances. At the genus level, the responders had an increased relative abundance of Anaerosporobacter but a reduced relative abundance of Parasutterella at baseline. Conclusions High absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales in the gut microbiota of pediatric patients reflects anti-inflammatory characteristics associated with rapid response to therapy. This warrants further studies on whether modification of pretreatment microbiota might improve the outcomes. Lay Summary We studied absolute and relative abundances of fecal microbiota in relation to response to induction therapy with infliximab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. We discovered that a high absolute abundance of anti-inflammatory Bifidobacteriales at baseline associated with response.Peer reviewe

    Questioning the fetal microbiome illustrates pitfalls of low-biomass microbial studies

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    Whether the human fetus and the prenatal intrauterine environment (amniotic fluid and placenta) are stably colonized by microbial communities in a healthy pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Here we evaluate recent studies that characterized microbial populations in human fetuses from the perspectives of reproductive biology, microbial ecology, bioinformatics, immunology, clinical microbiology and gnotobiology, and assess possible mechanisms by which the fetus might interact with microorganisms. Our analysis indicates that the detected microbial signals are likely the result of contamination during the clinical procedures to obtain fetal samples or during DNA extraction and DNA sequencing. Furthermore, the existence of live and replicating microbial populations in healthy fetal tissues is not compatible with fundamental concepts of immunology, clinical microbiology and the derivation of germ-free mammals. These conclusions are important to our understanding of human immune development and illustrate common pitfalls in the microbial analyses of many other low-biomass environments. The pursuit of a fetal microbiome serves as a cautionary example of the challenges of sequence-based microbiome studies when biomass is low or absent, and emphasizes the need for a trans-disciplinary approach that goes beyond contamination controls by also incorporating biological, ecological and mechanistic concepts

    An extended catalog of integrated prophages in the infant and adult fecal microbiome shows high prevalence of lysogeny

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    Background and aimsThe acquisition and gradual maturation of gut microbial communities during early childhood is central to an individual’s healthy development. Bacteriophages have the potential to shape the gut bacterial communities. However, the complex ecological interactions between phages and their bacterial host are still poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of integrated prophages in infant and adult gut bacteria by detecting integrated prophages in metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of commensal bacteria.MethodsOur study included 88 infants sampled at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (n = 323 total samples), and their parents around delivery time (n = 138 total samples). Fecal DNA was extracted and characterized by using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and a collection of prokaryotic MAGs was generated. The MAG collection was screened for the presence of integrated bacteriophage sequences, allowing their taxonomic and functional characterization.ResultsA large collection of 6,186 MAGs from infant and adult gut microbiota was obtained and screened for integrated prophages, allowing the identification of 7,165 prophage sequences longer than 10 kb. Strikingly, more than 70% of the near-complete MAGs were identified as lysogens. The prevalence of prophages in MAGs varied across bacterial families, with a lower prevalence observed among Coriobacteriaceae, Eggerthellaceae, Veillonellaceae and Burkholderiaceae, while a very high prevalence of lysogen MAGs were observed in Oscillospiraceae, Enterococcaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly for several bacterial families such as Bifidobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae, the prevalence of prophages in MAGs was higher in early infant time point (3 weeks and 3 months) than in later sampling points (6 and 12 months) and in adults. The prophage sequences were clustered into 5,616 species-like vOTUs, 77% of which were novel. Finally, we explored the functional repertoire of the potential auxiliary metabolic genes carried by these prophages, encoding functions involved in carbohydrate metabolism and degradation, amino acid metabolism and carbon metabolism.ConclusionOur study provides an enhanced understanding of the diversity and prevalence of lysogens in infant and adult gut microbiota and suggests a complex interplay between prophages and their bacterial hosts

    Quantitative Fecal Microbiota Profiles Relate to Therapy Response During Induction With Tumor Necrosis Factor α Antagonist Infliximab in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    No full text
    Background: The role of intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases is intensively researched. Pediatric studies on the relation between microbiota and treatment response are sparse. We aimed to determine whether absolute abundances of gut microbes characterize the response to infliximab induction in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.Methods: We recruited pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease introduced to infliximab at Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki. Stool samples were collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks for microbiota and calprotectin analyses. We defined treatment response as fecal calprotectin value <100 µg/g at week 6. Intestinal microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We analyzed total bacterial counts using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and transformed the relative abundances into absolute abundances based on the total counts.Results: At baseline, the intestinal microbiota in the treatment responsive group (n = 10) showed a higher absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales and a lower absolute abundance of Actinomycetales than nonresponders (n = 19). The level of inflammation according to fecal calprotectin showed no statistically significant association with the absolute abundances of fecal microbiota. The results on relative abundances differed from the absolute abundances. At the genus level, the responders had an increased relative abundance of Anaerosporobacter but a reduced relative abundance of Parasutterella at baseline.Conclusions: High absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales in the gut microbiota of pediatric patients reflects anti-inflammatory characteristics associated with rapid response to therapy. This warrants further studies on whether modification of pretreatment microbiota might improve the outcomes

    Quantitative Fecal Microbiota Profiles Relate to Therapy Response During Induction With Tumor Necrosis Factor α Antagonist Infliximab in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The role of intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases is intensively researched. Pediatric studies on the relation between microbiota and treatment response are sparse. We aimed to determine whether absolute abundances of gut microbes characterize the response to infliximab induction in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: We recruited pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease introduced to infliximab at Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki. Stool samples were collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks for microbiota and calprotectin analyses. We defined treatment response as fecal calprotectin value <100 µg/g at week 6. Intestinal microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We analyzed total bacterial counts using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and transformed the relative abundances into absolute abundances based on the total counts. RESULTS: At baseline, the intestinal microbiota in the treatment responsive group (n = 10) showed a higher absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales and a lower absolute abundance of Actinomycetales than nonresponders (n = 19). The level of inflammation according to fecal calprotectin showed no statistically significant association with the absolute abundances of fecal microbiota. The results on relative abundances differed from the absolute abundances. At the genus level, the responders had an increased relative abundance of Anaerosporobacter but a reduced relative abundance of Parasutterella at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: High absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales in the gut microbiota of pediatric patients reflects anti-inflammatory characteristics associated with rapid response to therapy. This warrants further studies on whether modification of pretreatment microbiota might improve the outcomes.publishedVersionPeer reviewe

    Possible Value of Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) When Added in Symptomatic Patients Referred for Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review

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    If Colorectal cancer (CRC) is detected and treated early, the survival rate is high. This is one of the reasons that population-based screening programs for the early detection of CRC using the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) started worldwide. These programs compete with regular colonoscopy programs and increase the waiting time for symptomatic patients. However, the literature has shown that the correlation between intestinal complaints and the gain of colonoscopy is poor. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of symptoms for the yield (CRC) of colonoscopy and to compare this with the diagnostic utility of FIT when offered to symptomatic patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review search for CRC as an outcome of colonoscopy in referred symptomatic patients and separately for CRC as an outcome in symptomatic patients with a positive FIT. We searched systematically for clinical trials or observational studies in databases, followed by hand-searching of reference lists. We used random Meta-Disc to evaluate the diagnostic performance, using the exploration of heterogeneity with a variety of test statistics and by computing the pooled estimates. Results: We included 35 studies, with almost 5 million symptomatic patients. In addition, we included nine prospective studies with a positive FIT in symptomatic patients, with more than 5000 patients. Significant heterogeneity was found for every symptom and the outcome of colonoscopy in the effect size of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio. In a random effect model, the pooled sensitivity of colonoscopy in symptomatic patients was very low (25%). However, the pooled sensitivity in symptomatic patients with a positive FIT was 83% and the pooled specificity 77%. A total of 75 symptomatic patients (1.4%) had a false-negative FIT. Conclusion: Adding FIT in symptomatic patients seems useful for predicting CRC as an outcome of colonoscopy. FIT seems a potential tool for an improved triage of colonoscopy in symptomatic patients

    Questioning the fetal microbiome illustrates pitfalls of low-biomass microbial studies

    No full text
    Whether the human fetus and the prenatal intrauterine environment (amniotic fluid and placenta) are stably colonized by microbial communities in a healthy pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Here we evaluate recent studies that characterized microbial populations in human fetuses from the perspectives of reproductive biology, microbial ecology, bioinformatics, immunology, clinical microbiology and gnotobiology, and assess possible mechanisms by which the fetus might interact with microorganisms. Our analysis indicates that the detected microbial signals are likely the result of contamination during the clinical procedures to obtain fetal samples or during DNA extraction and DNA sequencing. Furthermore, the existence of live and replicating microbial populations in healthy fetal tissues is not compatible with fundamental concepts of immunology, clinical microbiology and the derivation of germ-free mammals. These conclusions are important to our understanding of human immune development and illustrate common pitfalls in the microbial analyses of many other low-biomass environments. The pursuit of a fetal microbiome serves as a cautionary example of the challenges of sequence-based microbiome studies when biomass is low or absent, and emphasizes the need for a trans-disciplinary approach that goes beyond contamination controls by also incorporating biological, ecological and mechanistic concepts
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