16 research outputs found

    Price Developments on the World Markets for Milk Products: The Case of Butter

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    A time series model is estimated to identify the interrelation among prices on the international and the EU domestic market for butter. Although the findings were not derived from a causal model, the inspection of the data provides economically reasonable and important insights in structural relationship between international and domestic prices. It can be expected that similar relationships exists for other milk products as well. The fact that international prices in the EU and Oceania are causal for each other is an indication of an integrated market. However, price transmission is not perfect suggesting that competition between the EU and Oceania exists, however, but not as intense as it could be expected for a homogeneous good like butter. The estimates provide further some indication that the EU absorbs price fluctuations form the word market. Interestingly, changes of prices in Oceania have no impact on the domestic EU market. Fluctuations of the EU world market prices, on the other hand, are absorbed to a large extent. The reason for this reaction remains unclear. One explanation may an inappropriate fixing export refunds. Price variations within the EU are also transferred to the international markets.dairy market, international trade, market integration, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries, F15, Q13, Q17,

    Assessing Market Functioning: The Case of the Hungarian Milk Chain

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    The paper discusses the impact of market power in the Hungarian milk chain. In a first step a vector error correction model is estimates to assess whether a domestic market for raw milk exists. Since the answer was positive we proceed by developing a structural market model of the Hungarian market for raw milk that is able to identify a possible affect of market power on resource allocation. A nonlinear 3SLS approach was applied to estimate the supply and the demand for raw milk. The results provide that despite the high concentration of in dairy processing the indications for market poser are rather limited. The Bertrand like equilibrium can be attributed to the low degree of capacity utilization in dairy processing and the marketing alternative of farmers.market power, market integration, dairy, Hungary., Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing,

    ZUR BEWERTUNG DES UNGARISCHEN SAPARD-PROGRAMMS UNTER BESONDERER BERUCKSICHTIGUNG DER INVESTITIONEN IM MILCHSEKTOR

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    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Als Heranf√ľhrungsinstrument verfolgen die nationalen SAPARD Programme zwei Zielsetzungen. Zum Ersten sollen sie den Aufbau wettbewerbsf√§higer Strukturen in den Agrar- und Ern√§hrungssektoren der Beitrittsl√§nder unterst√ľtzen, indem die Investitionst√§tig-keit entwicklungsf√§higer Betriebe subventioniert wird. Dar√ľber hinaus sollen die Programme einen Beitrag zum Aufbau der Agrarverwaltungen in den neuen Mitgliedsstaaten leisten, so dass die L√§nder in der Lage sind, die agrarpolitischen Vorgaben der EU in den L√§ndern zu implementieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird am Beispiel Ungarns aufgezeigt, dass SAPARD diesen Zielsetzungen nur unzureichend gerecht wird. Die Bedeutung SAPARD f√ľr den Aufbau effizienter Verwaltungsstrukturen ergeben sich aus der Konzeption des Programms. SAPARD wurde nach dem Vorbild der EU-Politik f√ľr die Entwicklung des l√§ndlichen Raumes entwickelt. Folglich ist SAPARD eher an das institutio-nelle Umfeld der EU-15 angepasst als an die speziellen Bedingungen der Beitrittsl√§nder. Ein besonderes Problem war, dass die f√ľr funktionierende demokratische Gesellschaften erforderlichen intermedi√§ren gesellschaftlichen Strukturen sich erst im Aufbau befinden. Dementsprechend besteht eine gro√üe soziale Diskrepanz zwischen den Eliten und den lokalen Akteuren. Hieraus folgt, dass die auf zentraler Ebene beschlossenen Politikma√ünahmen nur im geringen Ma√üe Einfluss auf lokale Prozesse haben. Die Akzeptanz und die Durchf√ľhrung wurde weiterhin dadurch erschwert, dass SAPARD zwar als dezentrales Programm intendiert war, letztlich aber umfangreiche Kontrollmechanismen und Entscheidungsbefugnisse der EU-Ebene zugeordnet wurden. Zudem behindert der erhebliche Ressourcenaufwand f√ľr den Nachweis einer konformen Abwicklung der F√∂rderung die Durchf√ľhrung der Programme. Die Bewertung von SAPARD hinsichtlich des Aufbaus wettbewerbsf√§higer Strukturen erfolgte am Beispiel des ungarischen Milchsektors. Die Schlussfolgerungen lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen. Aufgrund der konzeptionellen und administrativen Probleme wurden weit geringere F√∂rdermittel in Anspruch genommen als geplant. Hieraus ergibt sich, dass die urspr√ľnglichen Modernisierungsziele nicht erreicht werden k√∂nnen. Obwohl SAPARD eher auf kleine und mittlere Unternehmen ausgerichtet ist, profitierten bisher eher gr√∂√üere landwirtschaftliche Betriebe und Verarbeitungsunternehmen von der Investitionsf√∂rderung. Diese selektive Unterst√ľtzung beschleunigt allerdings den Strukturwandel und f√∂rdert den Aufbau wettbewerbsf√§higer Strukturen in Landwirtschaft und Verarbeitung einschlie√ülich der Spezialisierung und Diversifizierung bei den bisher dominierenden Marktteilnehmern. Aufgrund der strengen F√∂rderbedingungen hinsichtlich der EU-Standards f√ľr Qualit√§t, Lebensmittelhygiene und Umweltleistungen wird hierdurch auch die Einhaltung des acquis communautaire verbessert.

    A magyarorsz√°gi szarvasmarha- √©s juh√°gazat k√∂z√©pt√°v√ļ kil√°t√°sai

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    Az √°llatteny√©szt√©si √°gazatok kil√°t√°sai nem biztat√≥ak a tart√≥san magas takarm√°ny√°rak, a vertik√°lisan kev√©sb√© szervezett, a term√©kp√°lya szakaszai k√∂z√∂tti laza kapcsolat miatt, ami a legfontosabb felvevŇĎpiacok szervezetlens√©g√©re is visszavezethetŇĎ. A magyarorsz√°gi √°llattart√≥k √©rdemben nem k√©pesek befoly√°solni sem a vil√°gpiacon, sem az Eur√≥pai Uni√≥ piac√°n zajl√≥ folyamatokat, √≠gy k√©nytelenek a r√©spiacokat kit√∂ltve alkalmazkodni. K√ľl√∂nb√∂zŇĎ modellv√°ltozataink szerint a szarvasmarha-√°llom√°ny 680-731 ezer egyed, a tejelŇĎteh√©n-√°llom√°ny 266-269 ezer egyed k√∂z√∂tt alakulhat 2013-ban. Tov√°bbra is elsŇĎsorban a h√ļshaszn√ļ egyedek sz√°m√°nak n√∂veked√©s√©re lehet sz√°m√≠tani. A tejtermel√©s 2010-ben v√°rhat√≥an kit√∂lti a nemzeti kv√≥t√°t. Tej- √©s tejterm√©k-kivitelben fŇĎk√©nt a folyad√©ktej r√©szar√°nya emelkedik, m√≠g az import tekintet√©ben mind a feldolgozott term√©kekben, mind a folyad√©ktejben n√∂veked√©s v√°rhat√≥. A juhtart√≥k k√∂zvetlen t√°mogat√°sa r√©szelegesen termel√©shez kapcsolt marad, az anyajuhl√©tsz√°m elŇĎrel√°that√≥an nem v√°ltozik sz√°mottevŇĎen az elk√∂vetkezŇĎ √©vekben, s 1,1 milli√≥ k√∂r√ľl alakul. Mindezek alapj√°n a j√∂vŇĎben a magyar √°llatteny√©szt√©s kibocs√°t√°sa v√°rhat√≥an nem nŇĎ sz√°mottevŇĎen. A felv√°s√°rl√°si √°rak ‚Äď a stabil kereslet miatt ‚Äď magasak lesznek, de a termel√©si k√∂lts√©gek n√∂veked√©se miatt a realiz√°lhat√≥ j√∂vedelem alig v√°ltozik. - The prospects for animal husbandry sectors are not encouraging, due to permanently high fodder prices and the vertically less organised, weak links between various stages of the produce path, which can be traced back to the disorganisation of the most important markets. Hungarian livestock farmers are unable to substantially influence the processes taking place on either the global or the EU markets and must, therefore, adapt by covering niche markets. According to our various models, by 2013 the cattle population could reach 220 680-731 thousand units and the dairy cow population 266-269 thousand units. Growth can still primarily be expected in meat stock. In 2010, milk production should fulfil the national quota. Among milk and dairy products the share of liquid milk will rise, while in terms of imports growth can be expected in both processed products and liquid milk. Direct support for sheep farmers will remain partly linked to production and the number of ewes is unlikely to change notably, reaching about 1.1 million. Based on all of the above, the output of Hungarian animal husbandry is not expected to increase significantly. Purchase prices will be high due to stable demand, but because of increased production costs actual income will hardly change

    Assessing Market Functioning: The Case of the Hungarian Milk Chain

    No full text
    The paper discusses the impact of market power in the Hungarian milk chain. In a first step a vector error correction model is estimates to assess whether a domestic market for raw milk exists. Since the answer was positive we proceed by developing a structural market model of the Hungarian market for raw milk that is able to identify a possible affect of market power on resource allocation. A nonlinear 3SLS approach was applied to estimate the supply and the demand for raw milk. The results provide that despite the high concentration of in dairy processing the indications for market poser are rather limited. The "Bertrand like" equilibrium can be attributed to the low degree of capacity utilization in dairy processing and the marketing alternative of farmers

    Price distortions on the Hungarian raw milk market

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    The paper attempts to identify the impact of market power in the Hungarian milk chain. Since the conventional conjectural variation approach provides suspicious results the incentives to collude are discussed in an alternative framework. It is argued that the high degree of market transparency, the high frequency of interaction, the low number of large firms which could actually influence market prices, the threat of severe sanctions due to the under-utilization of processing capacities as well as opportunistic behavior make collusive behavior more likely than competitive behavior. The empirical evidence for the period 1998 to 2006 supports this view

    Price Developments on the World Markets for Milk Products: The Case of Butter

    No full text
    A time series model is estimated to identify the interrelation among prices on the international and the EU domestic market for butter. Although the findings were not derived from a causal model, the inspection of the data provides economically reasonable and important insights in structural relationship between international and domestic prices. It can be expected that similar relationships exists for other milk products as well. The fact that international prices in the EU and Oceania are causal for each other is an indication of an integrated market. However, price transmission is not perfect suggesting that competition between the EU and Oceania exists, however, but not as intense as it could be expected for a homogeneous good like butter. The estimates provide further some indication that the EU absorbs price fluctuations form the word market. Interestingly, changes of prices in Oceania have no impact on the domestic EU market. Fluctuations of the EU world market prices, on the other hand, are absorbed to a large extent. The reason for this reaction remains unclear. One explanation may an inappropriate fixing export refunds. Price variations within the EU are also transferred to the international markets

    A magyarorsz√ɬ°gi szarvasmarha- √©s juh√ɬ°gazat k√ɬ∂z√©pt√ɬ°v√ɬļ kil√ɬ°t√ɬ°sai

    No full text
    Az √ɬ°llatteny√©szt√©si √ɬ°gazatok kil√ɬ°t√ɬ°sai nem biztat√ɬ≥ak a tart√ɬ≥san magas takarm√ɬ°ny√ɬ°rak, a vertik√ɬ°lisan kev√©sb√© szervezett, a term√©kp√ɬ°lya szakaszai k√ɬ∂z√ɬ∂tti laza kapcsolat miatt, ami a legfontosabb felvev√Ö‚Äėpiacok szervezetlens√©g√©re is visszavezethet√Ö‚Äė. A magyarorsz√ɬ°gi √ɬ°llattart√ɬ≥k √©rdemben nem k√©pesek befoly√ɬ°solni sem a vil√ɬ°gpiacon, sem az Eur√ɬ≥pai Uni√ɬ≥ piac√ɬ°n zajl√ɬ≥ folyamatokat, √ɬ≠gy k√©nytelenek a r√©spiacokat kit√ɬ∂ltve alkalmazkodni. K√ɬľl√ɬ∂nb√ɬ∂z√Ö‚Äė modellv√ɬ°ltozataink szerint a szarvasmarha-√ɬ°llom√ɬ°ny 680-731 ezer egyed, a tejel√Ö‚Äėteh√©n-√ɬ°llom√ɬ°ny 266-269 ezer egyed k√ɬ∂z√ɬ∂tt alakulhat 2013-ban. Tov√ɬ°bbra is els√Ö‚Äėsorban a h√ɬļshaszn√ɬļ egyedek sz√ɬ°m√ɬ°nak n√ɬ∂veked√©s√©re lehet sz√ɬ°m√ɬ≠tani. A tejtermel√©s 2010-ben v√ɬ°rhat√ɬ≥an kit√ɬ∂lti a nemzeti kv√ɬ≥t√ɬ°t. Tej- √©s tejterm√©k-kivitelben f√Ö‚Äėk√©nt a folyad√©ktej r√©szar√ɬ°nya emelkedik, m√ɬ≠g az import tekintet√©ben mind a feldolgozott term√©kekben, mind a folyad√©ktejben n√ɬ∂veked√©s v√ɬ°rhat√ɬ≥. A juhtart√ɬ≥k k√ɬ∂zvetlen t√ɬ°mogat√ɬ°sa r√©szelegesen termel√©shez kapcsolt marad, az anyajuhl√©tsz√ɬ°m el√Ö‚Äėrel√ɬ°that√ɬ≥an nem v√ɬ°ltozik sz√ɬ°mottev√Ö‚Äėen az elk√ɬ∂vetkez√Ö‚Äė √©vekben, s 1,1 milli√ɬ≥ k√ɬ∂r√ɬľl alakul. Mindezek alapj√ɬ°n a j√ɬ∂v√Ö‚Äėben a magyar √ɬ°llatteny√©szt√©s kibocs√ɬ°t√ɬ°sa v√ɬ°rhat√ɬ≥an nem n√Ö‚Äė sz√ɬ°mottev√Ö‚Äėen. A felv√ɬ°s√ɬ°rl√ɬ°si √ɬ°rak ‚Äď a stabil kereslet miatt ‚Äď magasak lesznek, de a termel√©si k√ɬ∂lts√©gek n√ɬ∂veked√©se miatt a realiz√ɬ°lhat√ɬ≥ j√ɬ∂vedelem alig v√ɬ°ltozik. - The prospects for animal husbandry sectors are not encouraging, due to permanently high fodder prices and the vertically less organised, weak links between various stages of the produce path, which can be traced back to the disorganisation of the most important markets. Hungarian livestock farmers are unable to substantially influence the processes taking place on either the global or the EU markets and must, therefore, adapt by covering niche markets. According to our various models, by 2013 the cattle population could reach 220 680-731 thousand units and the dairy cow population 266-269 thousand units. Growth can still primarily be expected in meat stock. In 2010, milk production should fulfil the national quota. Among milk and dairy products the share of liquid milk will rise, while in terms of imports growth can be expected in both processed products and liquid milk. Direct support for sheep farmers will remain partly linked to production and the number of ewes is unlikely to change notably, reaching about 1.1 million. Based on all of the above, the output of Hungarian animal husbandry is not expected to increase significantly. Purchase prices will be high due to stable demand, but because of increased production costs actual income will hardly change.szarvasmarha, tej, juh, piac, kil√ɬ°t√ɬ°sok, beef, milk, sheep, market, prospects, Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries,

    Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned Proceedings (Volume I / II)

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    Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990‚Äôs. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition" in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central East European countries. The transition to market based agriculture, however, is far from completion in Southern and Eastern Europe and especially in the CIS countries. International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) and European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) in collaboration with the Corvinus University of Budapest and with a number of other institutions in Hungary organized an inter-conference seminar on the subject of agricultural transition in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The major objective of the seminar was to discuss and draw conclusions on the role of agricultural policy in the transition process in the light of actual progress and current situation in Central and East European countries and in formal Soviet States. In addition the contribution of agricultural economics ‚Äď both from the West and from the East ‚Äď as a discipline and a profession to the transition process in agriculture were discussed. A specific objective was to identify priorities and means to strengthen the agricultural economics profession in the transition countries and determine research and educational priorities for the future. The seminar was attended by 118 participants representing 26 countries from Europe, North America and Asia. The Seminar was the largest professional meeting organized by the two associations in 2007. Over 110 abstracts were submitted and evaluated by the International Program Committee. In the two day program of the meeting, 8 presentations were made during the 3 plenary sessions, 66 papers were presented in the 15 contributed paper sessions in 8 subject categories. In addition there were 15 posters discussed in the poster session and the findings of a World Bank study on distortions of agricultural incentives in the region was the subject of a pre-conference workshop. Plenary speakers included Ulrich Koester, Johan Swinnen, Jerzy Wilkin, Zvi Lerman, Eugenia Serova and J√≥zsef Popp-G√°bor Udovecz. At the end of the seminar David Colman, President of IAAE gave a global assessment of the status of agricultural economics discipline and profession, while Csaba Cs√°ki, former President of IAAE made summary comments on major issues discussed during the seminar. This volume includes the plenary and contributed papers presented at the seminar and submitted for publications by the authors as well as the abstracts of the poster papers discussed. The seminar was supported and sponsored by a number of organizations and persons. All of their contributions have to be greatly acknowledged. First the two international organizations IAAE and EAAE have to be mentioned, which provided overall organizational framework and logistical support. The IAAE provided in addition a generous grant to support the participation of young agricultural economists from Central and Eastern Europe on the seminar. On the Hungarian side the Corvinus University of Budapest, the Szent Istv√°n University of G√∂d√∂llŇĎ, the Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, the Hungarian Agricultural Economics Association, the Hungarian Association of Agricultural Sciences and the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development were the major material and organizational supporters. The International Program committee was chaired by David Colman and Csaba Cs√°ki and included Ulrich Koester, Joe Swinnen, Eugenia Serova and Jerzy Wilkin. The local Organizing committee was chaired by Csaba Forg√°cs and Istv√°n SzŇĪcs and included Zolt√°n Lakner, Andr√°s N√°br√°di, J√≥zsef Popp, J√≥zsef T√≥th, G√°bor Udovecz, L√°szl√≥ Vajda, L√°szl√≥ Vill√°nyi, Krisztina Fodor, Attila J√°mbor and Tam√°s Mizik. Finally IAMO, Halle facilitated the publication of this proceedings

    Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned Proceedings (Volume I / II)

    No full text
    Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990√Ęs. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition" in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central East European countries. The transition to market based agriculture, however, is far from completion in Southern and Eastern Europe and especially in the CIS countries. International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) and European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) in collaboration with the Corvinus University of Budapest and with a number of other institutions in Hungary organized an inter-conference seminar on the subject of agricultural transition in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The major objective of the seminar was to discuss and draw conclusions on the role of agricultural policy in the transition process in the light of actual progress and current situation in Central and East European countries and in formal Soviet States. In addition the contribution of agricultural economics √Ę both from the West and from the East √Ę as a discipline and a profession to the transition process in agriculture were discussed. A specific objective was to identify priorities and means to strengthen the agricultural economics profession in the transition countries and determine research and educational priorities for the future. The seminar was attended by 118 participants representing 26 countries from Europe, North America and Asia. The Seminar was the largest professional meeting organized by the two associations in 2007. Over 110 abstracts were submitted and evaluated by the International Program Committee. In the two day program of the meeting, 8 presentations were made during the 3 plenary sessions, 66 papers were presented in the 15 contributed paper sessions in 8 subject categories. In addition there were 15 posters discussed in the poster session and the findings of a World Bank study on distortions of agricultural incentives in the region was the subject of a pre-conference workshop. Plenary speakers included Ulrich Koester, Johan Swinnen, Jerzy Wilkin, Zvi Lerman, Eugenia Serova and J√ɬ≥zsef Popp-G√ɬ°bor Udovecz. At the end of the seminar David Colman, President of IAAE gave a global assessment of the status of agricultural economics discipline and profession, while Csaba Cs√ɬ°ki, former President of IAAE made summary comments on major issues discussed during the seminar. This volume includes the plenary and contributed papers presented at the seminar and submitted for publications by the authors as well as the abstracts of the poster papers discussed. The seminar was supported and sponsored by a number of organizations and persons. All of their contributions have to be greatly acknowledged. First the two international organizations IAAE and EAAE have to be mentioned, which provided overall organizational framework and logistical support. The IAAE provided in addition a generous grant to support the participation of young agricultural economists from Central and Eastern Europe on the seminar. On the Hungarian side the Corvinus University of Budapest, the Szent Istv√ɬ°n University of G√ɬ∂d√ɬ∂ll√Ö, the Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, the Hungarian Agricultural Economics Association, the Hungarian Association of Agricultural Sciences and the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development were the major material and organizational supporters. The International Program committee was chaired by David Colman and Csaba Cs√ɬ°ki and included Ulrich Koester, Joe Swinnen, Eugenia Serova and Jerzy Wilkin. The local Organizing committee was chaired by Csaba Forg√ɬ°cs and Istv√ɬ°n Sz√Ö¬Īcs and included Zolt√ɬ°n Lakner, Andr√ɬ°s N√ɬ°br√ɬ°di, J√ɬ≥zsef Popp, J√ɬ≥zsef T√ɬ≥th, G√ɬ°bor Udovecz, L√ɬ°szl√ɬ≥ Vajda, L√ɬ°szl√ɬ≥ Vill√ɬ°nyi, Krisztina Fodor, Attila J√ɬ°mbor and Tam√ɬ°s Mizik. Finally IAMO, Halle facilitated the publication of this proceedings.Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics,
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