47 research outputs found

    Educational Quality and Accountability in Ontario: Past, Present, and Future

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    This paper outlines the genesis, limitations, and future directions for the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO) in the province of Ontario. Recent assessment reforms are analyzed and examined in relation to broader Canadian and international literature. Research describing the impact of Ontario’s large-scale assessment programs on students, teachers, and the school system is also reported. The discussion outlines measures for strengthening large-scale assessment within the province and proposes a set of three overarching principles to guide future assessment- led reform.

    Essential Elements in Teacher Education: Preservice Student Perspectives

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    Using focus groups and individual interviews, student teachers’ perspectives on their program’s design and delivery were examined. Data analysis using constant comparison revealed a set of 10 essential elements for effective teacher education programs: diverse student bodies, effective program faculty, useful curricula and pedagogy, theory into practice orientation, program coherence, small class sizes, cohort class structure, supportive associate teachers, prolonged practicum experiences, and ongoing program review. The discussion underscores the value of studying student teachers’ perspectives, particularly when contemplating programmatic changes and reforms in teacher education.Nous avons examinĂ©, par le biais de groupes de consultation et d’entrevues personnelles, les perspectives qu’ont les stagiaires quant Ă  la conception et la prestation de leur programme. Une analyse des donnĂ©es reposant sur une comparaison constante a rĂ©vĂ©lĂ© un ensemble de 10 Ă©lĂ©ments essentiels au succĂšs d’un programme de formation des enseignants : une population Ă©tudiante diversifiĂ©e; un personnel enseignant efficace; des programmes d’études et une pĂ©dagogie utiles; une orientation visant l’application de la thĂ©orie Ă  la pratique; un programme cohĂ©rent; de petits groupes d’étudiants en classe; une structure de classe reposant sur les cohortes; l’appui des enseignants associĂ©s; des stages prolongĂ©s; et un examen continu des programmes. De la discussion ressort l’importance d’étudier les perspectives des stagiaires, surtout quand on envisage des changements aux programmes et des rĂ©formes dans la formation des enseignants

    EXPLORING TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ASSESSMENT LITERACY: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER EDUCATION REFORM AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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    This study examined the assessment literacy of primary/junior teacher candidates in all four years of their concurrent program. Candidates from each year of the program completed a survey pertaining to self‐described level of assessment literacy, main purposes of assessment, utilization of different assessment methods, need for further training, and suggested methods for promoting assessment literacy in university and practice teaching settings. Levels of self‐efficacy remained relatively low for teacher candidates across each of the four years of this program. Most candidates suggested summative purposes for assessment and only a minority expressed formative purposes. They favoured observational techniques and personal communication. Key words: classroom assessment; preservice education Cette Ă©tude porte sur la capacitĂ© d’évaluation chez les Ă©tudiants en pĂ©dagogie durant les quatre annĂ©es de leur programme de formation Ă  l’enseignement au primaire et au premier cycle du secondaire. Des Ă©tudiants de chaque annĂ©e du programme ont rempli un questionnaire portant sur les sujets suivants : auto‐estimation de leur aptitude Ă  l’évaluation, buts principaux des Ă©valuations, utilisation de diverses mĂ©thodes d’évaluation, besoin d’une formation plus poussĂ©e et suggestion de mĂ©thodes pouvant aider Ă  perfectionner l’aptitude Ă  l’évaluation Ă  l’universitĂ© et lors de stages pĂ©dagogiques. Les rĂ©pondants dans chacune des annĂ©es du programme estimaient que leur capacitĂ© d’évaluation Ă©tait relativement faible. La plupart ont parlĂ© d’évaluations sommatives et seulement une minoritĂ©, d’évaluations formatives. Les rĂ©pondants favorisaient les techniques d’observation et les communications personnelles. Mots clĂ©s : Ă©valuation des Ă©lĂšves, formation Ă  l’enseignement

    Assessing Conceptual Orientations in Teacher Education Programs

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    A well-defined conceptual framework helps identify a program’s central tasks, such as helping teachers become intellectual leaders, promoting the primacy of experience and/or developing a progressive social vision in teachers. This type of conceptual clarity provides guidance to teacher educators in program development and evaluation by identifying issues or tasks that specific programs should address (Feiman-Nemser, 1990). Conceptual orientations research has typically relied on the analyses of course syllabi to infer a program’s emphases. The degree to which a program fosters knowledge acquisition in a particular area may or may not conform to these course/program descriptions. Direct data gathered from students can help address the issue of espoused versus enacted curriculum. However, students’ voices have been noticeably absent from conceptual orientation research within teacher education programs. This paper describes the instrument development and process for assessing conceptual orientations using a structured questionnaire with student teachers. Qualitative data that was used to help validate the survey as well as the statistical properties that attest to the soundness of the instrument will also be presented. The discussion outlines various applications of the developed instrument and proposes future areas of research

    Are social inequalities being transmitted through higher education?:A propensity-score matching analysis of private versus public university graduates using machine learning models

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    This study investigates differences in employment outcomes of students graduating from private versus public universities in Spain, and the resulting impact on employment outcomes. The methodology involves propensity score matching, utilising novel machine learning approaches. Machine learning algorithms can be used to calculate propensity scores and can potentially have advantages compared to conventional methods. Contrary to previous research carried out in Spain, this analysis found a wage premium for those pupils who attended a private university in the short and medium term, although these differences were relatively small. The discussion outlines the implications for intergenerational inequality, policy development, and future research that utilises machine learning algorithms

    Formative assessment and the contemporary classroom: Synergies and tensions between research and practice

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    Twenty teachers working in elementary and secondary schools were interviewed from 2 school districts in southern Ontario, Canada about their understanding and use of particular formative assessment strategies. Analysis of the interviews followed a constant comparison method and revealed a variety of emerging themes. Results suggested an imbalance in the use of formative assessment methods associated with improvements in student learning and achievement. Many teachers noted tensions in utilizing particular formative assessment strategies such as peer assessment and self-assessment. The discussion focuses on the implications for teacher education reform and in-service professional development so that greater synergy between formative assessment research and practice can be obtained in contemporary classrooms.   Descriptors: Formative assessment; teacher knowledge; professional development.&nbsp

    Teacher Candidates’ Perceptions of Conceptual Orientations in Their Preservice Program

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    Using interviews, focus groups, and observations, we examined teacher candidates’ understanding of the conceptual orientations that defined their preservice program and practicum experience. Using Feiman-Nemser’s (1990) framework, we analyzed our data to determine the dominant perspectives of teacher candidates. Results indicated congruence between the orientations (i.e., critical/social and personal) of their preservice program and teacher candidates’ conceptions of their professional development. The results also suggested that conceptual orientations may not all be equally used in practice. Teacher candidates reported that the critical/social orientation was often not supported by their associate teachers and was particularly difficult to implement in math and science subject areas. Data also suggested that the implementation of the personal orientation depended on a prolonged experience within schools, which teacher candidates reported they were lacking. Keywords: preservice teacher education, conceptual orientation, field-based teacher education, constructivist teaching, practicum À l’aide d’entrevues, de discussions en groupe et d’observations, les auteurs ont cherchĂ© Ă  cerner la comprĂ©hension qu’ont les futurs enseignants des orientations conceptuelles qui dĂ©finissent leur programme de formation et leurs stages. Analysant les donnĂ©es recueillies Ă  l’aide du cadre de Feiman-Nemser (1990), ils ont mis en lumiĂšre les principaux points du vue des candidats Ă  l’enseignement. Les rĂ©sultats indiquent une congruence entre les orientations (critique/sociale et personnelle) du programme de formation Ă  l’enseignement et les idĂ©es que se font les candidats Ă  l’enseignement au sujet de leur perfectionnement professionnel. Les rĂ©sultats donnent Ă©galement Ă  penser que les orientations conceptuelles ne sont peut-ĂȘtre pas toutes utilisĂ©es de maniĂšre Ă©gale dans la pratique. Les candidats Ă  l’enseignement ont signalĂ© que l’orientation critique/sociale ne reçoit pas souvent l’appui des enseignants associĂ©s et Ă©tait particuliĂšrement difficile Ă  mettre en Ɠuvre en mathĂ©matiques et en sciences. Les donnĂ©es recueillies semblent Ă©galement indiquer que le recours Ă  l’orientation personnelle suppose une expĂ©rience prolongĂ©e dans les Ă©coles, ce qui fait dĂ©faut, comme l’ont fait remarquer les candidats Ă  l’enseignement. Mots clĂ©s : formation Ă  l’enseignement, orientation conceptuelle, formation Ă  l’enseignement sur le terrain, enseignement constructiviste, stage

    UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LARGE-SCALE ASSESSMENT AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANNING

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    This study explored how teachers and school administrators connect large-scale assessment results with school improvement planning. Using a semi-structured format, 20 teachers and 17 administrators were interviewed from two school districts in southern Ontario, Canada. The interview protocol contained a range of questions related to teaching and administrative experience, large-scale assessment knowledge, professional development, and instructional planning in response to large-scale assessment results. Analysis of the interviews followed a constant comparison method and suggested few educators, particularly at the secondary level, are using large-scale assessment results in a sophisticated fashion for data-integrated decision-making. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to professional development, capacity building, and instructional leadership

    Are social inequalities being transmitted through higher education?:A propensity-score matching analysis of private versus public university graduates using machine learning models

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    This study investigates differences in employment outcomes of students graduating from private versus public universities in Spain, and the resulting impact on employment outcomes. The methodology involves propensity score matching, utilising novel machine learning approaches. Machine learning algorithms can be used to calculate propensity scores and can potentially have advantages compared to conventional methods. Contrary to previous research carried out in Spain, this analysis found a wage premium for those pupils who attended a private university in the short and medium term, although these differences were relatively small. The discussion outlines the implications for intergenerational inequality, policy development, and future research that utilises machine learning algorithms

    The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence

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    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). This paper discusses the etiology, key developments, and policy discussions associated with OECD’s international surveys in compulsory and higher education settings within Canada and abroad. The authors examine the normative influence of OECD on educational governance and the contested nature of international policy evidence in the educational policy sphere
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