126 research outputs found

    A break from pain! Interruption management in the context of pain

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    Activity interruptions, namely temporary suspensions of an ongoing task with the intention to resume it later, are common in pain. First, pain is a threat signal that urges us to interrupt ongoing activities in order to manage the pain and its cause. Second, activity interruptions are used in chronic pain management. However, activity interruptions by pain may carry costs for activity performance. These costs have recently started to be systematically investigated. We review the evidence on the consequences of activity interruptions by pain for the performance of the interrupted activity. Further, inspired by literature on interruptions from other research fields, we suggest ways to improve interruption management in the field of pain, and provide a future research agenda

    On the Origin of Interoception

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    Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion, decision making, time-perception, health, pain, and various other areas of life. While the label for the perception of the body state changes over time, the need for an overarching concept remains. Many aspects can make any particular interoceptive sensation unique and distinct from any other interoceptive sensation. This can range from the sense of agency, to the physical cause of a sensation, the ontogenetic origin, the efferent innervation, and afferent pathways of the tissue involved amongst others. In its overarching meaning, interoception primarily is a product of the central nervous system, a construct based on an integration of various sources, not per se including afferent information. This paper proposes a definition of interoception as based on subjective experience, and pleas for the use of specific vocabulary in addressing the many aspects that contribute to it

    Effects of activity interruptions by pain on pattern of activity performance - an experimental investigation

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    Background and aims: Suspending an ongoing activity with the intention to resume it again later is a natural response to pain. This response facilitates coping with the pain, but it may also have negative consequences for the resumption and performance of the activity. For example, people with pain problems are often forced to take a break from doing their household chores because of their pain. They might delay resuming their chore, eventually needing longer time to finish it. We investigated how activity interruptions by pain influence the pattern of subsequent activity performance. We expected that when an activity is interrupted by pain (compared to non-pain), people spend longer time away from the activity, need longer time to complete it, and are less motivated to perform it. Methods: Sixty healthy volunteers performed an ongoing task that required them to make joystick movements in different directions according to a specific rule. Occasionally, participants received either a painful electrocutaneous stimulus or a non-painful and non-aversive auditory stimulus (between-subjects) as an interruption cue. The interruption cue was followed by the temporary suspension of the ongoing task and the initiation of a different activity (interruption task). The latter required the categorization of cards and had a maximum duration, but participants could also stop it earlier by pressing a button. We measured time away from the (interrupted) ongoing task, total time to complete the ongoing task (including the interruptions) and self-reported motivation to perform both the ongoing as well as the interruption task. Results: Groups did not differ in the time away from the ongoing task, total time to complete the ongoing task, or self-reported motivation to perform the two tasks. Conclusions: Activity interruptions by pain did not impair the pattern of activity performance more than activity interruptions by non-pain. Potential explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed

    Is it a painful error?:The effect of unpredictability and intensity of punishment on the error-related negativity, and somatosensory evoked potentials

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    We examined how predictable and unpredictable punishment intensity contingent on error commission modulated ERN amplitudes. We recorded the ERN in 35 healthy volunteers performing the Eriksen flanker task. Errors were punished with predictable nonpainful, painful or unpredictable electrical stimulation. Furthermore, we investigated trait anxiety. We observed that ERN amplitudes did not differ across conditions, nor were there significant effects of anxiety. In contrast, we found that predictable painful punishments led to smaller Error Positivity (Pe). The effects of predictability and intensity were present in Somatosensory Evoked Potentials elicited by the punishments. N1 amplitudes were increased for painful compared to nonpainful stimulation, and P2/P3 amplitudes for painful compared to nonpainful, and for unpredictable compared to predictable stimulation. We suggest that unpredictability and increased painfulness of punishments enhance the potential motivational significance of the errors, but do not potentiate ERN amplitudes beyond the ones elicited by errors punished with predictable nonpainful stimulation

    Sub-optimal presentation of painful facial expressions enhances readiness for action and pain perception following electrocutaneous stimulation

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    Observation of others’ painful facial expressions has been shown to facilitate behavioral response tendencies and to increase pain perception in the observer. However, in previous studies, expressions were clearly visible to the observer and none of those studies investigated the effect of presence of peripheral stimulation on response tendencies. This study focuses on the effect of sub-optimal presentation of painful facial expressions in the presence and absence of an electrocutaneous stimulus. Twenty-two healthy individuals categorized arrow targets which were preceded by a sub-optimally presented facial expression (painful, happy, or neutral in different blocks). On half of the trials, aversive electrocutaneous stimulation was delivered to the wrist of the non-dominant hand between the presentation of facial expression and target (an arrow directing to right or left). Participants’ task was to indicate direction of the arrow as soon as it appears on the screen by pressing the corresponding key on the keyboard and to rate their pain at the end of block. Analysis showed that responses were faster to targets preceded by aversive stimulation than to targets not preceded by stimulation, especially following painful expressions. Painfulness ratings were higher following painful expressions than following happy expressions. These findings suggest that sub-optimally presented painful expressions can enhance readiness to act to neutral, non-pain-related targets after aversive stimulation and can increase pain perception

    Effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program to manage concerns about falls in community-dwelling, frail older people: results of a randomized controlled trial

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    Background: Concerns about falls are common among older people. These concerns, also referred to as fear of falling, can have serious physical and psychosocial consequences, such as functional decline, increased risk of falls, activity restriction, and lower social participation. Although cognitive behavioral group programs to reduce concerns about falls are available, no home-based approaches for older people with health problems, who may not be able to attend such group programs are available yet. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program on concerns about falls, in frail, older people living in the community. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, 389 people aged 70 years and older, in fair or poor perceived health, who reported at least some concerns about falls and related activity avoidance were allocated to a control (n = 195) or intervention group (n = 194). The intervention was a home-based, cognitive behavioral program consisting of seven sessions including three home visits and four telephone contacts. The program aims to instill adaptive and realistic views about fall risks via cognitive restructuring and to increase activity and safe behavior using goal setting and action planning and was facilitated by community nurses. Control group participants received usual care. Outcomes at 5 and 12 months follow-up were concerns about falls, activity avoidance due to concerns about falls, disability and falls. Results: At 12 months, the intervention group showed significant lower levels of concerns about falls compared to the control group. Furthermore, significant reductions in activity avoidance, disability and indoor falls were identified in the intervention group compared with the control group. Effect sizes were small to medium. No significant difference in total number of falls was noted between the groups. Conclusions: The home-based, cognitive behavioral program significantly reduces concerns about falls, related activity avoidance, disability and indoor falls in community-living, frail older people. The program may prolong independent living and provides an alternative for those people who are not able or willing to attend group programs

    Development of the Avoidance Daily Activities Photo Scale for Patients With Shoulder Pain

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    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop the Avoidance of Daily Activities Photo Scale (ADAP shoulder scale) to measure shoulder pain-related avoidance behavior in patients with shoulder pain and evaluate and report the structural validity and internal consistency of the scale. METHODS: Potential daily activities involving the shoulder were selected from the activities and participation domain of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The selected activities were presented to an expert panel, health care professionals, and patients with shoulder pain with the question, "How much do you think it is important to ask patients with shoulder pain about this activity?" Activities attaining a content validity index (CVI) of ≥0.8 were represented using a digitally colored photograph. Activity photographs were evaluated by health care professionals and patients with shoulder pain. Photographs with a CVI of ≥0.8 were included in the scale. To evaluate structural validity and internal consistency of the scale, exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the presence of any scale domain. Cronbach alpha was calculated to indicate the internal consistency of each domain. RESULTS: Of the 107 preselected activities, 21 attained a CVI of ≥0.8. Eighteen photographs (CVI ≥ 0.8) were included in the scale after being analyzed by 120 health care professionals and 50 patients with shoulder pain. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 156) showed that the ADAP shoulder scale consists of 3 domains: "free movement," "high effort," and "self-care." The internal consistencies of the domains were 0.92, 0.89, and 0.92, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ADAP shoulder scale included 15 photographs distributed in 3 domains. All domains had a high internal consistency. The scale is easily applicable, well understood, and relevant for shoulder pain. IMPACT: The ADAP Shoulder Scale can be used to rate shoulder pain-related avoidance behaviors

    Fatigue and physical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis: a structural equation modeling approach

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    Although fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), its pathogenesis is still poorly understood and it is difficult to treat. The aim of the current study was to test the assumptions of a cognitive-behavioral model that explains fatigue and physical disability in MS patients, by comparing this approach with a more traditional biomedical approach. Structural equation modeling was applied to a sample of 262 MS patients. Neither the cognitive-behavioral, nor the biomedical model showed an adequate fit of our data. The modification indices supported an integration of both models, which showed a better fit than those of the separate models. This final model, is notable for at least three features: (1) fatigue is associated with depression and physical disability, (2) physical disability is associated with disease severity and fatigue-related fear and avoidance behavior, and (3) catastrophic interpretations about fatigue, fueled by depression, mediated the relationship between fatigue and fatigue-related fear and avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that an integrated approach, including the modification of catastrophic thoughts about fatigue, would be beneficial in the treatment of fatigue in MS patients
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