4,556 research outputs found

    Alignment procedure of the LHCb Vertex Detector

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    LHCb is one of the four main experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, which will start at CERN in 2008. The experiment is primarily dedicated to B-Physics and hence requires precise vertex reconstruction. The silicon vertex locator (VELO) has a single hit precision of better than 10 micron and is used both off-line and in the trigger. These requirements place strict constraints on its alignment. Additional challenges for the alignment arise from the detector being retracted between each fill of the LHC and from its unique circular disc r/phi strip geometry. This paper describes the track based software alignment procedure developed for the VELO. The procedure is primarily based on a non-iterative method using a matrix inversion technique. The procedure is demonstrated with simulated events to be fast, robust and to achieve a suitable alignment precision.Comment: accepted for publication in NIM

    LHCb VELO software alignment, Part III: the alignment of the relative sensor positions

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    The LHCb Vertex Locator contains 42 silicon sensor modules. Each module has two silicon sensors. A method for determining the relative alignment of the silicon sensors within each module from data is presented. The software implementation details are discussed. Monte-Carlo simulation studies are described that demonstrate an alignment precision of 1.3 micron is obtained in the sensor plane

    Laser monitoring system for the ATLAS tile calorimeter

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    LHCb VELO software alignment - PART II: the alignment of the VELO detector-halves

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    The software alignment of the Vertex Locator (VELO) is a critical component of the LHCb alignment strategy. This note demonstrates a potential algorithm to perform the alignment of the VELO detector-halves. The approach described in this document, and the tools developed, are also applicable to the alignment of the other LHCb sub-systems and the global relative alignment of the sub-detectors

    Interplay of structure and spin-orbit strength in magnetism of metal-benzene sandwiches: from single molecules to infinite wires

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    Based on first-principles density functional theory calculations we explore electronic and magnetic properties of experimentally producible sandwiches and infinite wires made of repeating benzene molecules and transition-metal atoms of V, Nb, and Ta. We describe the bonding mechanism in the molecules and in particular concentrate on the origin of magnetism in these structures. We find that all the considered systems have sizable magnetic moments and ferromagnetic spin-ordering, with the single exception of the V3-Bz4 molecule. By including the spin-orbit coupling into our calculations we determine the easy and hard axes of the magnetic moment, the strength of the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE), relevant for the thermal stability of magnetic orientation, and the change of the electronic structure with respect to the direction of the magnetic moment, important for spin-transport properties. While for the V-based compounds the values of the MAE are only of the order of 0.05-0.5 meV per metal atom, increasing the spin-orbit strength by substituting V with heavier Nb and Ta allows to achieve an increase in anisotropy values by one to two orders of magnitude. The rigid stability of magnetism in these compounds together with the strong ferromagnetic ordering makes them attractive candidates for spin-polarized transport applications. For a Nb-benzene infinite wire the occurrence of ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance is demonstrated.Comment: 23 pages, 8 figure

    Surface magnetic phase transition of the double-exchange ferromagnet: Schwinger-boson mean-field study

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    The surface magnetic phase transition of a double-exchange model for metallic manganites is studied using a Schwinger-boson mean-field method. About three unit-cells wide surface layers are identified. The magnetic moment in these layers decreases more rapidly than that in the bulk when the temperature is increased. This behavior is consistent with experimental observations. We also discuss the implication of this behavior on the tunneling magnetoresistance effect using manganites and possible improvement of the magnetoresistance effect near the bulk Curie temperature.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

    Photovoltaic response around a unique180° ferroelectric domain wall in single crystalline BiFeO3

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    Using an experimental setup designed to scan a submicron sized light spot and collect the photogenerated current through larger electrodes, we map the photovoltaic response in ferroelectric BiFeO3 single crystals. We study the effect produced by a unique 180° ferroelectric domain wall (DW) and show that the photocurrent maps are significantly affected by its presence and shape. The effect is large in its vicinity and in the Schottky barriers at the interface with the Au electrodes, but no extra photocurrent is observed when the illuminating spot touches the DW, indicating that this particular entity is not the heart of specific photo-electric properties. Using 3D modelling, we argue that the measured effect is due to the spatial distribution of internal fields which are significantly affected by the charge of the DW due to its distortion

    Negative Domain Wall Contribution to the Resistivity of Microfabricated Fe Wires

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    The effect of domain walls on electron transport has been investigated in microfabricated Fe wires (0.65 to 20 ÎĽm\mu m linewidths) with controlled stripe domains. Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements as a function of domain wall density, temperature and the angle of the applied field are used to determine the low field MR contributions due to conventional sources in ferromagnetic materials and that due to the erasure of domain walls. A negative domain wall contribution to the resistivity is found. This result is discussed in light of a recent theoretical study of the effect of domain walls on quantum transport.Comment: 7 pages, 4 postscript figures and 1 jpg image (Fig. 1

    Terahertz wave generation via optical rectification from multiferroic BiFeO3

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    We detected broadband coherent terahertz (THz) emission from multiferroic BiFeO3 after illuminating a high-quality bulk single ferroelectric domain crystal with a ~100 fs optical pulse. The dependence of the emitted THz waveform on the energy and polarization of the optical pulse is consistent with the optical rectification mechanism of THz emission. The THz emission provides a sensitive probe of the electric polarization state of BiFeO3, enabling applications in ferroelectric memories and ferroelectric domain imaging. We also report room-temperature THz optical constants of BiFeO3.Comment: accepted for publication in Applied Physics Letter

    Spin flip scattering in magnetic junctions

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    Processes which flip the spin of an electron tunneling in a junction made up of magnetic electrodes are studied. It is found that: i) Magnetic impurities give a contribution which increases the resistance and lowers the magnetoresistance, which saturates at low temperatures. The conductance increases at high fields. ii) Magnon assisted tunneling reduces the magnetoresistance as T3/2T^{3/2}, and leads to a non ohmic contribution to the resistance which goes as V3/2V^{3/2}, iii) Surface antiferromagnetic magnons, which may appear if the interface has different magnetic properties from the bulk, gives rise to T2T^2 and V2V^2 contributions to the magnetoresistance and resistance, respectively, and, iv) Coulomb blockade effects may enhance the magnetoresistance, when transport is dominated by cotunneling processes.Comment: 5 page
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