11 research outputs found

    Isolamento e valutazione degli effetti di microrganismi entomopatogeni nei confronti di insetti di interesse agrario, forestale e medico-veterinario

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    The insecticidal potential of various entomopathogenic bacteria was evaluated by ingestion and/or injection bioassays against noxious insects including Musca domestica, Ceratitis capitata, Lymantria dispar, and Malacosoma neustria. Bacteria involved in the study included newly isolated soil occurring strains, reference strains (i.e. Bacillus thuringiensis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila), and others isolated form Galleria mellonella larvae infected with an original collection of entomopathogenic nematods. The new bacterial isolates were identified by phylogenetic analysis involving 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As a result of bioassays, significant differences in the insecticidal potential emerged for diverse bacterial strains and different insect targets. B. thuringiensis, P. luminescines and X. nematophila were generally highly toxic against lepidopteran larvae, while different B. laterosporus strains showed variable degrees of toxicity against the house fly. Among the others, significant was the pathogenic potential of Bacillus firmus, Paenibacillus tundrae and Bacillus psychrodurans, and of new species belonging to the genera Serratia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Alcaligenes. These results are discussed in comparison with previous knowledge in the field, highlighting the prospect of a possible use of new bacterial strains for further studies focusing on the development of new actives for the microbial pest management.</br

    Oral insecticidal activity of new bacterial isolates against insects in two orders

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    According to the present research trend and legislative framework of the major world regions fostering the development and use of low-risk biocidal and plant protection products for Integrated Pest Management, the discovery of new entomopathogenic bacterial species and isolates bearing insecticidal traits against novel targets is needed in the near future. In this study, the oral insecticidal activity of bacteria isolated from septicaemic Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed against different insect pests of agricultural, forest and medical-veterinary importance, including Lepidoptera (Lymantria dispar and Malacosoma neustria) and Diptera (Musca domestica and Ceratitis capitata). This led to the identification of new entomopathogenic bacterial isolates belonging to different species including Alcaligenes aquatilis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterococcus mundtii, Pseudomonas protegens, Serratia nematodiphila, Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The majority of these isolates were toxic to gypsy moth L. dispar and, more moderately, to lackey moth M. neustria larvae. Variable degrees of virulence were observed on fly species. While the insecticidal action of some of these species was previously observed, we report for the first time the insecticidal properties of specific strains against a wider target range

    A Polymorphism in the Cyclooxygenase 2 Gene as an Inherited Protective Factor Against Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

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    ContextMyocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke are thought to be caused by matrix digestion by metalloproteinases (MMPs) leading to rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Production of macrophage MMP-2 and MMP-9 is induced by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Although COX-2 expression may be genetically determined, the relation between COX-2 polymorphisms and the risk of MI and stroke is unclear.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between the −765G→C polymorphism of the COX-2 gene and clinically evident plaque rupture.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsProspective, matched case-control study conducted between March 2002 and October 2003 among 864 patients with first MI or atherothrombotic ischemic stroke and 864 hospitalized controls. The groups were matched for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. The −765G→C variant of the COX-2 gene was genotyped by restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products.Main Outcome MeasuresPresence of the −765G→C polymorphism of the COX-2 gene; COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression and activity in plaques and in peripheral monocytes; urinary 6-keto PGF1α (marker of endothelial prostacyclin); and endothelium-dependent and -independent forearm blood flow vasodilation.ResultsThe prevalence of −765GC was 2.41 times higher among controls than among cases (43.3% vs 17.9%; P<.001). The prevalence of −765CC homozygosity was 5.81 times higher (6.4% vs 1.1%; P = .04). Among participants carrying the −765GC and −765CC genotypes, the prevalence ratios for MI or stroke were 0.48 (95% CI, 0.36-0.68) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.24-0.55), respectively. Expression of COX-2 and MMPs was significantly lower in atherosclerotic plaques from participants carrying the −765C allele, while the −765G→C polymorphism did not affect endothelial prostacyclin biosynthesis or endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo. In subgroup analyses (n = 224 cases), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly lower in patients carrying the −765C allele (mean [SD], 0.78 [0.1] vs 2.56 [0.4] mg/L; P = .04).ConclusionsWe found that the −765G→C polymorphism of the COX-2 gene is associated with a decreased risk of MI and stroke. Detection of this genotype may be useful for predicting genetic risk of MI and stroke

    Different Kinetics of HBV-DNA and HBsAg in HCV Coinfected Patients during DAAs Therapy

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    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may induce hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivations in co-infected patients, whose dynamics and outcomes could depend on the phase of HBV infection. We investigated HBsAg and HBV-DNA kinetics in fifteen untreated HBeAg Negative Infection (ENI) (4F-11M, 62.1y) and eight Nucleos(t)ide Analogs (NAs) treated Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) (3F-6M, 54.8y) with HCV co-infection, receiving DAAs-regimens including Sofosbuvir (13) or not (10). All achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) and normalized alanine-aminotransferase (ALT). At the direct acting antivirals’ (DAAs) baseline (BL), the HBV-DNA was undetectable (p = 0.035). During DAAs, HBV-DNA increased in untreated ENI by >1 Log in five and became detectable in two. Accordingly, mean BL Log-HBV-DNA (0.89) increased at week-4 (1.78; p = 0.100) and at the end of therapy (1.57; p = 0.104). Mean Log-HBsAg decreased at week-4 in ENI (from 0.88 to 0.55; p = 0.020) and CHB (from 2.42 to 2.15; p = 0.015). After DAAs, the HBsAg returned to pre-treatment levels in CHB, but not in ENI (six cleared HBsAg). Female gender and SOF were associated with a greater HBsAg decline. In conclusion, HBV reactivations during DAAs in HCV co-infected ENI caused moderate increases of HBV-DNA without ALT elevations. The concomitant HBsAg decline, although significant, did not modify individual pre-treatment profiles

    Derangement of the T-cell repertoire in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

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    Although a number of studies suggest that different immune pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), the shape of the T-cell compartment has been only superficially explored in these patients. In our study, we analyzed the peripheral T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the distribution of different T-cell subsets – including regulatory T cells (Treg) – in 30 patients with NHL, by combining flow cytometry and spectratyping. We first demonstrated by flow cytometry an increased frequency of expanded T-cell subpopulations expressing the same TCR beta variable (BV) subfamilies in CD8+ cells from NHL patients when compared with healthy controls, beside a higher frequency of Treg. Moreover, NHL patients were characterized by a higher percentage of BVs showing a skewed CDR3 profile both in CD4+ and CD8+ cells when analyzed by spectratyping. Our data suggest that the T-cell branch of the immune system of patients with B-cell NHL is deeply deranged, as witnessed by the increased degree of activation and skewing of their TCR repertoire along with the higher frequency of Treg

    Bioelectrochemical element conversion reactions towards generation of energy and value-added chemicals

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    Aldosterone and arterial hypertension

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