1,518 research outputs found

    Off-Grid Energy Technologies Used in Rural Areas of India

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    Energy scenario in India is changing with a greater pace. Growth rate of villages has increased, likewise their energy demand. With the awareness of the decreasing natural resources, non conventional energy resources are gaining lots of interest in sparsely separated areas. The rural areas of India are having the huge scarcity of energy because of limited energy resources and Grid connectivity is not feasible due to economic factors and geographical situations. So we require to establish the off grid system for the benefit of the mass. Off-grid System's commissioning and operation done as indigenous unit, and free from grid related problems like frequency and voltage regulations and they provides flexible operation because their emphasis is on extraction of energy and conversion into useful work. This paper discusses the potential use of off-grid energy technologies as an alternative for grid extension. Off-grid Energy systems provide the solutions to the basic energy needs in the rural areas of India. These indigenously build plants are not connected to any electrical utility and can be connected with the micro grid for the better reliable operation. Due to small size their demand and load management would be easy. Off-grid system utilizes the solar thermal radiation, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal wave, Biomass etc. There is numerous numbers of applications where we can use this energy and decrease the dependence on conventional grid

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum