7 research outputs found

    Illustrated Handbook of WRB Soil Classification

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    Soil classification is a difficult issue and requires many years of study under the guidance of experienced teachers. In the course of long-term studies and field research, soil scientists acquire the skills of recognizing and correctly naming many important features resulting from litho-, anthropo- or pedogenic processes. The problem with learning the secrets of this art is the lack of opportunity to see many examples of different soil features hidden beneath the earth's surface. Visiting many regions of the world for didactic or scientific purposes, we felt the need to share our photographic collections with other people involved in the study and interpretation of the soil environment. It is with great pleasure that we present to the reader a set of several hundred photographs showing the features, properties, soil horizons, as well as examples of interpretation of soil profiles – in accordance with the rules and nomenclature adopted in the international soil naming and classification system – the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2022).ERASMUS

    Structures of illite in glacigenic sediments of Latvia

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    ANOTĀCIJA Disertācijā „Illīta struktūras glacigēnajos nogulumos Latvijā” pētītas dažādas illīta struktūras un to iespējamā pārmantojamība glacigēnajos nogulumos materiāla asimilācijas ceļā. Pētījumā iegūti rezultāti par illīta struktūrām glacigēnajos nogulumos. Diskutēts par iespējamo illīta politipu jutību uz ģeoloģiskās vides apstākļu izmaiņām. Izmantojot rentgenstaru pulverdifrakcijas metodi (XRD), veikta illīta 1Md politipā sastopamo 1M un 2M1 politipu nebazālo refleksu diagnostika. Izvērtētas paraugu frakcionēšanas metodes un paraugu sagatavošanas veidi XRD analīzei, kā arī optimizēti XRD uzņemšanas parametri. Konstatēts, ka detrītiskas cilmes 2M1 illīts ar 1Mcv un 1Mtv politipu piejaukumu ir dominējošais politips 1Md struktūrās glacigēnajos nogulumos, kas ievākti Ulmāles un Kupravas pētījumu rajonos, < 2; 1; 0,4 μm frakcijās. Glacigēnajos un zem tiem paguļošajos nogulumos konstatēta attiecību nevienādība starp 1Mcv un 1Mtv illīta politipiem.ANNOTATION Various illite structures and probable inheritance of these structures in glacigenic deposits caused by assimilation of the material have been studied in dissertation “Structures of illite in glacigenic sediments of Latvia”. Possible sensitivity of illite polytypes depending on various geological conditions is discussed. Diagnostic of unbasal reflexes of 1M and 2M1 polytypes found in illite polytype 1Md is performed applying x-ray powder diffraction method (XRD). Fractioning methods of the samples and sample preparation for XRD methods are evaluated, as well as XRD recording parameters were optimised. It is found out that detritic origin illite polytype 2M1 with admixture of 1Mcv and 1Mtv polytypes dominates in 1Md structures of glacigenic deposits fractions < 2; 1; 0.4 μm in the samples taken at the Ulmāle and Kuprava study areas. Inconsistency of 1Mcv and 1Mtv polytypes is found in glacigenic and underlying deposits

    Dolocretes in the uppermost Famennian to Mississippian siliciclastic deposits (Å Ä·ervelis Formation, Latvia)

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    Siliciclastic deposits and dolostones of the Å Ä·ervelis Formation in southwestern Latvia were studied in outcrops, polished slabs, thin sections, and by geochemical methods, including stable isotope analyses. Siliciclastic fluvial deposits alternate with soils and carbonates. As the soil processes became dominant, up to 6 m thick dolocretes formed, but they still preserve remnant sedimentary structures and textures. The strong role of soil processes is indicated by the presence of ooids and pisoids together with fine laminar layers, chert and phosphatic inclusions, rhizoids, and stable isotope values. Peculiar vertical clay-dolomite structures, up to 1.7 m long, are root structures or their combination with Vertisol-like soil development. The extensive development of soil processes and formation of the vertical structures was stimulated by seasonally wet monsoon climate. The scarcity of fossils in the studied deposits does not allow their age to be determined precisely, but probably the thick dolocrete unit in the upper part of the studied succession formed during the end-Devonian glaciation and the period of related sea regression

    Effect of Curing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Material

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    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of curing conditions on the mechanical properties of alkali (6M KOH) activated illite clays of Latvia. Three Quaternary clays of Latvia with different Si/Al ratio were used for material synthesis. The results of compressive strength were explained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction

    Illustrated Handbook of WRB Soil Classification, 299 s.

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    Soil classification is a difficult issue and requires many years of study under the guidance of experienced teachers. In the course of long-term studies and field research, soil scientists acquire the skills of recognizing and correctly naming many important features resulting from litho-, anthropo- or pedogenic processes. The problem with learning the secrets of this art is the lack of opportunity to see many examples of different soil features hidden beneath the earth's surface. Visiting many regions of the world for didactic or scientific purposes, we felt the need to share our photographic collections with other people involved in the study and interpretation of the soil environment. It is with great pleasure that we present to the reader a set of several hundred photographs showing the features, properties, soil horizons, as well as examples of interpretation of soil profiles – in accordance with the rules and nomenclature adopted in the international soil naming and classification system – the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2022). The book has been divided into several chapters. The photos have been arranged in such a way as to reflect the process of creating a description of the soil profile – from environmental features, through morphological soil features, diagnostic horizons, properties and materials, to specific examples of soil profile classification. In the section with soil profiles, we managed to collect 100 examples from all Reference Soil Groups found in all climatic zones of our planet. In the names of the soils, we have mainly emphasised those features (qualifiers) that are morphologically identifiable in the photos, consciously omitting those that can only be read from the results of laboratory analyses. We hope that the handbook, developed as one of outcomes of an Erasmus+ project Share Your Soils (SYStem), will be useful in didactic and scientific work and will help to understand what the individual soil characteristics look like, in general and in the context of the nomenclature used in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    SHARE YOUR SOILS User Manual, 38 s.

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    The internet platform Share Your Soils (SYStem) was created as the world's first social edutainment medium dedicated to the description and categorisation of soils according to the international WRB classification. The platform represents an innovative teaching tool that helps teachers at high school and universities as well as environmental researchers and practitioners. The main tool developed within the project is a mobile and a web application to send photos of soil profiles with a description, a geolocation and a classification proposal. Users have the possibility to exchange and share their knowledge and help less experienced colleagues by commenting and suggesting soil genesis and classification. Join in, share your soils, discuss their origin and systematic position, collect points in different categories and have fun learning soil classification! More about the SYStem project: https://sites.google.com/site/shareyoursoils 2. Wh
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