502 research outputs found

    Delocalization in two dimensional disordered Bose systems and depinning transition in the vortex state in superconductors

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    We investigate two-dimensional Bose system with the long range interactions in the presence of disorder. Formation of the bound states at strong impurity sites gives rise to an additional depletion of the superfluid density. We demonstrate the existence of the intermediate superfluid state where the condensate and localized bosons present simultaneously. We find that interactions suppress localization and that with the increase of the boson density the system experiences a sharp delocalization crossover into a state where all bosons are delocalized. We map our results onto the three dimensional system of vortices in type II superconductors in the presence of columnar defects; the intermediate superfluid state maps to an intermediate vortex liquid where vortex liquid neighbors pinned vortices. We predict the depinning transition within the vortex liquid and depinning induced vortex lattice/Bose glass melting

    Slow Crack Propagation in Heterogeneous Materials

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    Statistics and thermally activated dynamics of crack nucleation and propagation in a two-dimensional heterogeneous material containing quenched randomly distributed defects are studied theoretically. Using the generalized Griffith criterion we derive the equation of motion for the crack tip position accounting for dissipation, thermal noise and the random forces arising from the defects. We find that aggregations of defects generating long-range interaction forces (e.g., clouds of dislocations) lead to anomalously slow creep of the crack tip or even to its complete arrest. We demonstrate that heterogeneous materials with frozen defects contain a large number of arrested microcracks and that their fracture toughness is enhanced to the experimentally accessible time scales.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figur

    Depinning of a vortex chain in a disordered flow channel

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    We study depinning of vortex chains in channels formed by static, disordered vortex arrays. Depinning is governed either by the barrier for defect nucleation or for defect motion, depending on whether the chain periodicity is commensurate or incommensurate with the surrounding arrays. We analyze the reduction of the gap between these barriers as function of disorder. At large disorder, commensurability becomes irrelevant and the pinning force is reduced to a small fraction of the ideal shear strength of ordered channels. Implications for experiments on channel devices are discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in Europhysics Letter

    Spectral flow in superconducting point contacts

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    We find that multiple Andreev reflections mediating the transport in superconducting point contacts are strongly affected by a small amount of impurities in the area of the contact. We also argue that the model based on Zener transitions within independent conducting channels is not suitable for kinetic processes in multichannel contacts.Comment: Revised version. To be published in Europhysics Letter