136 research outputs found

    A Tabulated-Chemistry Approach applied to a Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for a Fast and Accurate Knock Prediction in Spark-Ignition Engines

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    The description of knock phenomenon is a critical issue in a combustion model for Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. The most known theory to explain this phenomenon is based on the Auto-Ignition (AI) of the end-gas, ahead the flame front. The accurate description of this process requires the handling of various aspects, such as the impact of the fuel composition, the presence of residual gas or water in the burning mixture, the influence of cool flame heat release, etc. This concern can be faced by the solution of proper chemistry schemes for gasoline blends. Whichever is the modeling environment, either 3D or 0D, the on-line solution of a chemical kinetic scheme drastically affects the computational time. In this paper, a procedure for an accurate and fast prediction of the hydrocarbons auto-ignition, applied to phenomenological SI engine combustion models, is proposed. It is based on a tabulated approach, operated on both ignition delay times and reaction rates. This technique, widely used in 3D calculations, is extended to 0D models to overcome the inaccuracies typical of the most common ignition delay approaches, based on the Livengood-Wu integral solution. The aim is to combine the predictability of a detailed chemistry with an acceptable computational effort. First, the tabulated technique is verified through comparisons with a chemical solver for a semi-detailed kinetic scheme in constant-pressure and constant-volume configurations. Then a phenomenological model, based on the end-gas AI computation, is utilized to predict the knock occurrence in different SI engines, including both naturally-aspirated and turbocharged architectures. 0D/1D simulations are performed both with an online solution of the chemistry and employing the tabulated approach. Assessment with reference KLSA values shows that the knock model, based on the tabulated chemistry, is able to well reproduce the essential features of the auto-ignition process in the analyzed engines, with a limited impact on the computational time

    Assessment of an Adaptive Efficient Thermal/Electric Skipping Control Strategy for the Management of a Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

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    In the current scenario, where environmental concern determines the evolution of passenger cars, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) represent a hub in the automotive sector to reach net-zero CO2 emissions. To fully exploit the energy conversion potential of advanced powertrains, proper energy management strategies are mandatory. In this work, a simulation study is presented, aiming at developing a new control strategy for a P3 parallel plug-in HEV (PHEV). The simulation model is built on MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed strategy is based on an alternative utilization of the thermal engine and electric motor to provide the vehicle power demand (efficient thermal/electric skipping strategy (ETESS)). An adaptive function is then introduced to develop a charge-blended control strategy. Fuel consumption along different driving cycles is evaluated by applying the novel adaptive-ETESS (A-ETESS). To have a proper comparison, the same adaptive function is built on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Processor-in-the-loop (PIL) simulations are performed to benchmark the A-ETESS. Simulation results highlighted that the proposed strategy provides for a fuel economy similar to ECMS (worse of about 2.5% on average) and a computational effort reduced by 99% on average, opening the possibility of real-time on-vehicle applications

    development of an on-line energy management strategy for hybrid electric vehicle

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    Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) seems to be one of the most promising short-term solution to improve the sustainability on the transportation sector. As well-known, the numerical analyses can give a substantial contribute during the preliminary vehicle design. In this context, the development of the Energy Management Strategy (EMS) represents the most challenging task. In this paper, an on-line local optimization EMS for a parallel/series hybrid vehicle is proposed to minimize the CO2 emissions. The proposed EMS, implemented in a dynamic simulation platform, is compared to the well-assessed off-line Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP). Firstly, the main differences regarding the energy management are highlighted in detail. Then, the EMSs are assessed in terms of CO2 emissions, putting into evidence that the proposed on-line strategy involves limited penalizations (3-4%) compared to the PMP target

    EGR Systems Employment to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of a Downsized Turbocharged Engine at High-load Operations☆

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    Abstract In this work, a promising technique, consisting in an introduction of the external low pressure cooled EGR system, is analyzed by means of a 1D numerical approach with reference to a downsized spark-ignition turbocharged engine. The effects of various EGR amounts are investigated in terms of fuel consumption at full load operations. The proposed results highlight that EGR allows for increasing the knock safety margin. Fuel economy improvements however depend on the overall engine recalibration, consisting in proper settings of the A/F ratio and spark advance, compatible with knock occurrence. The numerical recalibration also accounts for additional limitations on the turbocharger speed, boost level, and turbine inlet temperature. The maximum BSFC improvement by the proposed solution is 5.9%

    Hierarchical 1D/3D Approach for the Development of a Turbulent Combustion Model Applied to a VVA Turbocharged Engine. Part II: Combustion Model

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    As discussed in the part I of this paper, 3D models represent a useful tool for a detailed description of the mean and turbulent flow fields inside the engine cylinder. 3D results are utilized to develop and validate a 0D phenomenological turbulence model, sensitive to the variation of operative parameters such as valve phasing, valve lift, engine speed, etc. In part II of this paper, a 0D phenomenological combustion model is presented, as well. It is based on a fractal description of the flame front and is able to sense each of the fuel properties, the operating conditions (air-to-fuel ratio, spark advance, boost level) and the combustion chamber geometry. In addition, it is capable to properly handle different turbulence levels predicted by means of the turbulence model presented in the part I. The turbulence and combustion models are included, through user routines, in the commercial software GT-Power". With reference to a small twin-cylinder VVA turbocharged engine, the turbulence/combustion model, once properly tuned, is finally used to calculate in-cylinder pressure traces, rate of heat release and overall engine performance at full load operations and brake specific fuel consumption at part load, as well. An excellent agreement between numerical forecasts and experimental evidence is obtained

    Hierarchical 1D/3D Approach for the Development of a Turbulent Combustion Model Applied to a VVA Turbocharged Engine. Part I: Turbulence Model☆

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    Abstract It is widely recognized that air-fuel mixing, combustion and pollutant formation inside internal combustion engines are strongly influenced by the spatial and temporal evolution of both marco- and micro- turbulent scales. Particularly, in spark ignited engines, the generation of a proper level of turbulence intensity for the correct development of the flame front is traditionally based on the onset, during the intake and compression strokes, of a tumbling macro-structure. Recently, in order to both reduce pumping losses due to throttling and develop advanced and flexible engine control strategies, fully variable valve actuation systems have been introduced, capable of simultaneously governing both valve phasing and lift. Despite the relevant advantages in terms of intake system efficiency, this technology introduces uncertainties on the capability of the intake port/valve assembly to generate, at low loads, sufficiently coherent and stable structures, able therefore to promote adequate turbulence levels towards the end of the compression, with relevant effects on the flame front development. It is a common knowledge that 3D-CFD codes are able to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow field and of the subsequent combustion process with good accuracy; however, they require too high computational time to analyze the engine performance for the whole operating domain. On the contrary, this task is easily accomplished by 1D codes, where, however, the combustion process is usually derived from experimental measurements of the in-cylinder pressure trace (Wiebe correlation). This approach is poorly predictive for the simulation of operating conditions relevantly different from the experimental ones. To overcome the above described issues, enhanced physical models for the description of in-cylinder turbulence evolution and combustion to be included in a 1D modeling environment are mandatory. In the present paper (part I), a 0D (i.e. homogeneous and isotropic) phenomenological (i.e. sensitive to the variation of operative parameters such as valve phasing, valve lift, intake and exhaust pressure levels, etc.) turbulence model belonging to the K-k model family is presented in detail. The model is validated against in-cylinder results provided by 3D-CFD analyses carried ou

    1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Turbine for Automotive Engines Under Steady and Unsteady Flow Conditions

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    Abstract Turbocharging technique is more and more widely employed on compression ignition and spark ignition internal combustion engines, as well, to improve performance and reduce total displacement. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). A specialized components test rig (particularly suited to study automotive turbochargers) has been operating since several years at the University of Genoa. The test facility allows to develop studies under steady or unsteady flow conditions both on single components and subassemblies of engine intake and exhaust circuit. In the paper the results of an experimental campaign developed on a turbocharger waste-gated turbine for gasoline engine application are presented. Preliminarily, the measurement of the turbine steady flow performance map is carried out. In a second step the same component is tested under unsteady flow conditions. Instantaneous inlet and outlet static pressure, mass flow rate and turbocharger rotational speed are measured, together with average inlet and outlet temperatures. A numerical procedure, recently developed at the University of Naples, is then utilized to predict the steady turbine performance map, following a 1D approach. The model geometrically schematizes the component basing on few linear and angular dimensions directly measured on the hardware. Then, the 1D steady flow equations are solved within the stationary and rotating channels constituting the device. All the main flow losses are properly taken into account in the model. The procedure is able to provide the sole "wheel-map" and the overall turbine map. After a tuning, the overall turbine map is compared with the experimental one, showing a very good agreement. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of a 1D engine simulation model, the classical map-based approach is suitably corrected with a sequence of pipes that schematizes each component of the device (inlet/outlet ducts, volute and wheel) included upstream and downstream the turbine to account for the wave propagation and accumulation phenomena inside the machine. In this case, the previously computed "wheel-map" is utilized. The turbine pipes dimensions, are automatically provided by the geometrical module of the proposed procedure to correctly reproduce the device volume and the flow path length

    Pre-lift Valve Actuation Strategy for the Performance Improvement of a DISI VVA Turbocharged Engine

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    Abstract Modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) are becoming more and more complex in order to achieve not only better power and torque performance, but also to respect the pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption (CO 2 ) limits. The turbocharger, advanced valve actuation systems (VVA) and the EGR circuit allow the ICE's load control together with the traditional throttle valve and spark advance. Thus, an higher number of operating parameters are available for the calibration engineer to achieve the required performance target (minimum fuel consumption at part load, maximum power and torque at full load, etc.). On the other hand, the increased degrees of freedom may frustrate the potentialities of so complex systems because of the effort needed to identify the optimal engine control strategies. The development of proper numerical models may assist and direct the experimental activity in order to reduce the related times and costs. Although VVA solutions could bring a reduction in the specific fuel consumption thanks to an important de-throttling of the intake system, unfortunately they can simultaneously lead to higher noise levels radiated by the intake mouth. In fact, in this case, the pressure waves travelling through the intake ducts are not properly damped by the throttle valve. In this paper a numerical methodology is developed to define the engine calibration and the intake valve lift profile that simultaneously minimize the BSFC and the noise at part load. The engine object of the study is a turbocharged Spark-Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) ICE equipped by a lost motion valve actuation system for the intake valves. In this study, the commercial 1D thermo fluid-dynamic code GT-PowerTM is provided with user routines for the description of the combustion process and the handing of variable valve lift profiles. The engine model is thus integrated with a commercial optimization code (modeFRONTIERTM) to identify the optimized load control strategies to achieve the set objectives. The proposed methodology is also used for the definition of unconventional valve lift profiles. Particularly, the advantages related to the use of a small pre-lift before the main valve lift profile are estimated compared to a conventional EIVC strategy

    Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part II: Model Concept, Validation and Discussion

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    As known, reliable information about underlying turbulence intensity is a mandatory pre-requisite to predict the burning rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. Based on 3D results reported in the companion part I paper, a quasi-dimensional turbulence model, embedded under the form of "user routine" in the GT-Power\u2122 software, is here presented in detail. A deep discussion on the model concept is reported, compared to the alternative approaches available in the current literature. The model has the potential to estimate the impact of some geometrical parameters, such as the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, or the bore-to-stroke ratio, thus opening the possibility to relate the burning rate to the engine architecture. Preliminarily, a well-assessed approach, embedded in GT-Power commercial software v.2016, is utilized to reproduce turbulence characteristics of a VVA engine. This test showed that the model fails to predict tumble intensity for particular valve strategies, such LIVC, thus justifying the need for additional refinements. The model proposed in this work is conceived to solve 3 balance equations, for mean flow kinetic energy, tumble vortex momentum, and turbulent kinetic energy (3-eq. concept). An extended formulation is also proposed, which includes a fourth equation for the dissipation rate, allowing to forecast the integral length scale (4-eq. concept). The impact of the model constants is parametrically analyzed in a first step, and a tuning procedure is advised. Then, a comparison between the 3- and the 4-eq. concepts is performed, highlighting the advantages of the 3-eq. version, in terms of prediction accuracy of turbulence speed-up at the end of the compression stroke. An extensive 3-eq. model validation is then realized according to different valve strategies and engine speeds. The user-model is then utilized to foresee the effects of main geometrical parameters analyzed in part I, namely the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, and the bore-to-stroke ratio. A two-valve per cylinder engine is also considered. Temporal evolutions of 0D- and 3D-derived mean flow velocity, turbulent intensity, and tumble velocity present very good agreements for each investigated engine geometry and operating condition. The model, particularly, exhibits the capability to accurately predict the tumble trends by varying some geometrical parameter of the engine, which is helpful to estimate the related impact on the burning rate. Summarizing, the developed 0D model well estimates the in-cylinder turbulence characteristics, without requiring any tuning constants adjustment with engine speed and valve strategy. In addition, it demonstrates the capability to properly take into account the intake duct orientation and the compression ratio without tuning adjustments. Some minor tuning variation allows predicting the effects of bore-to-stroke ratio, as well. Finally, the model is verified to furnish good agreements also for a two-valve per cylinder engine, and with reference to two different high-performance engines

    A quasi-dimensional model of pre-chamber spark-ignition engines

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    Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures. In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed. Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented in a 1D code. The proposed numerical approach shows the ability to simulate the experimental data with good accuracy, using a fixed tuning constant set. The model demonstrates to correctly describe the behavior of a pre-chamber combustion system under different operating conditions and to capture the physics behind such an innovative combustion system concept
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