276 research outputs found

    Immunosenescence in multiple sclerosis : the identification of new therapeutic targets

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    The number of elderly multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is growing, mainly due to the increase in the life expectancy of the general population and the availability of effective disease-modifying treatments. However, current treatments reduce the frequency of relapses and slow the progression of the disease, but they cannot stop the disability accumulation associated with disease progression. One possible explanation is the impact of immunosenescence, which is associated with the accumulation of unusual immune cell subsets that are thought to have a role in the development of an early ageing process in autoimmunity. Here, we provide a recent overview of how senescence affects immune cell function and how it is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, particularly MS. Numerous studies have demonstrated age-related immune changes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models, and the premature onset of immunosenescence has been demonstrated in MS patients. Therefore, potential therapeutic strategies based on rejuvenating the immune system have been proposed. Senolytics and regenerative strategies using haematopoietic stem cells, therapies based on rejuvenating oligodendrocyte precursor cells, microglia and monocytes, thymus cells and senescent B and T cells are capable of reversing the process of immunosenescence and could have a beneficial impact on the progression of MS

    Immunosenescence in multiple sclerosis: the identification of new therapeutic targets

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    Autoimmunitat; Immunosenescència; Esclerosi múltipleAutoinmunidad; Inmunosenescencia; Esclerosis múltipleAutoimmunity; Immunosenescence; Multiple sclerosisThe number of elderly multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is growing, mainly due to the increase in the life expectancy of the general population and the availability of effective disease-modifying treatments. However, current treatments reduce the frequency of relapses and slow the progression of the disease, but they cannot stop the disability accumulation associated with disease progression. One possible explanation is the impact of immunosenescence, which is associated with the accumulation of unusual immune cell subsets that are thought to have a role in the development of an early ageing process in autoimmunity. Here, we provide a recent overview of how senescence affects immune cell function and how it is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, particularly MS. Numerous studies have demonstrated age-related immune changes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models, and the premature onset of immunosenescence has been demonstrated in MS patients. Therefore, potential therapeutic strategies based on rejuvenating the immune system have been proposed. Senolytics and regenerative strategies using haematopoietic stem cells, therapies based on rejuvenating oligodendrocyte precursor cells, microglia and monocytes, thymus cells and senescent B and T cells are capable of reversing the process of immunosenescence and could have a beneficial impact on the progression of MS.This work was supported by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria, Instituto de Salud Carlos III , and co-funded by the European Union ( European Regional Development Fund / European Social Fund ), “A way to build Europe”, under Grant PI18/01146 and RD16/0015/004 and the “ Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca ” (AGAUR; Generalitat de Catalunya ) under Grant 2017SGR527

    Increased NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Pyroptosis in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis With Fingolimod Treatment Failure

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    Inflammasome; Pyroptosis; Multiple sclerosisInflamasoma; Piroptosis; Esclerosis múltipleInflamasoma; Piroptosi; Esclerosi múltipleBackground and Objectives Inflammasomes are involved in the pathogenesis of different neuroimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In a previous study by our group, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat receptor and pyrin-domain–containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was reported to be associated with the response to interferon-beta in MS. Based on recent data showing the potential for the oral therapy fingolimod to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, here we investigated whether fingolimod could also be implicated in the response to this therapy in patients with MS. Methods NLRP3 gene expression levels were measured by real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months in a cohort of patients with MS treated with fingolimod (N = 23), dimethyl fumarate (N = 21), and teriflunomide (N = 21) and classified into responders and nonresponders to the treatment according to clinical and radiologic criteria. In a subgroup of fingolimod responders and nonresponders, the percentage of monocytes with an oligomer of ASC was determined by flow cytometry, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and galectin-3 were quantified by ELISA. Results NLPR3 expression levels were significantly increased in fingolimod nonresponders after 3 (p = 0.03) and 6 months (p = 0.008) of treatment compared with the baseline but remained similar in responders at all time points. These changes were not observed in nonresponders to the other oral therapies tested. The formation of an oligomer of ASC in monocytes after lipopolysaccharide and adenosine 5′-triphosphate stimulation was significantly decreased in responders (p = 0.006) but increased in nonresponders (p = 0.0003) after 6 months of fingolimod treatment compared with the baseline. Proinflammatory cytokine release from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was comparable between responders and nonresponders, but galectin-3 levels on cell supernatants, as a marker of cell damage, were significantly increased in fingolimod nonresponders (p = 0.02). Discussion The differential effect of fingolimod on the formation of an inflammasome-triggered ASC oligomer in monocytes between responders and nonresponders could be used as a response biomarker after 6 months of fingolimod treatment and suggests that fingolimod may exert their beneficial effects by reducing inflammasome signaling in a subset of patients with MS.MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 (grant PID2020-116709RB-I00)—Fundación Séneca (grant 20859/PI/18) and the Instituto Salud Carlos III (grant DTS21/00080). L. Hurtado-Navarro was supported by the fellowship 21214/FPI/19 (Fundación Séneca, Región de Murcia, Spain)

    Lung emphysema and lung cancer: what do we know about it?

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    Emphysema and lung cancer (LC) are two diseases which share common risk factors, e.g., smoking. In recent years, many studies have sought to analyse this association. By way of illustration, we conducted a review of the scientific literature of the studies published to date, whose main designated aim was to demonstrate the relationship between emphysema and LC, and this association's influence on the histology, prognosis and molecular mechanisms responsible. We included over 40 studies (ranging from case-control and cohort studies to systematic reviews and meta-analyses), which highlight the association between emphysema and LC, independently of smoking habit. These studies also report a possible influence on histology, with adenocarcinoma being the most frequent lineage, and an association with poor prognosis, which affects both survival and post-operative complications. Oxidative stress, which generates chronic inflammatory status as well as the presence of certain polymorphisms in various genes (CYP1A1, TERT, CLPTM1L, ERK), gives rise-in the case of patients with emphysema-to alteration of cellular repair mechanisms, which in turn favours the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells responsible for the origin of LC

    Teriflunomide and Epstein–Barr virus in a Spanish multiple sclerosis cohort: in vivo antiviral activity and clinical response

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    Biomarker; Multiple sclerosis; TeriflunomideBiomarcador; Esclerosi múltiple; TeriflunomidaBiomarcador; Esclerosis múltiple; TeriflunomidaBackground: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy approved for treatment of relapsing forms of MS. In the preclinical Theiler’s murine encephalitis virus model of MS, the drug demonstrated an increased rate of viral clearance versus the vehicle placebo. Furthermore, teriflunomide inhibits lytic EBV infection in vitro. Objective: 1. To evaluate the humoral response against EBV and HHV-6 prior to teriflunomide treatment and 6 months later. 2. To correlate the variation in the humoral response against EBV and HHV-6 with the clinical and radiological response after 24 months of treatment with teriflunomide. 3. To analyze the utility of different demographic, clinical, radiological, and environmental data to identify early biomarkers of response to teriflunomide. Methods: A total of 101 MS patients (62 women; mean age: 43.4 years) with one serum prior to teriflunomide onset and another serum sample 6 months later were recruited. A total of 80 had been treated for at least 24 months, 13 had stopped teriflunomide before 24 months, and 8 were currently under teriflunomide therapy but with less than 24 months of follow-up. We analyzed the levels of the viral antibodies titers abovementioned in serum samples with ELISA commercial kits, and the levels of serum neurofilament light chain (Nf-L). Results: Antiviral antibody titers decreased for EBNA-1 IgG (74.3%), VCA IgG (69%), HHV-6 IgG (60.4%), and HHV-6 IgM (73.3%) after 6 months of teriflunomide. VCA IgG titers at baseline correlated with Nf-L levels measured at the same time (r = 0.221; p = 0.028) and 6 months later (r = 0.240; p = 0.017). We found that higher EBNA-1 titers (p = 0.001) and a higher age (p = 0.04) at baseline were associated with NEDA-3 conditions. Thus, 77.8% of patients with EBNA-1 >23.0 AU and >42.8 years (P50 values) were NEDA-3. Conclusion: Treatment with teriflunomide was associated with a reduction of the levels of IgG antibody titers against EBV and HHV-6. Furthermore, higher EBNA-1 IgG titers prior to teriflunomide initiation were associated with a better clinical response.AM has a technician contract from “REI: Red de Enfermedades Inflamatorias” (RD21/0002/0038). This work was financially supported by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Proyectos de generación de conocimiento)-Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (Feder) (PID2021-126041OB-I00) and “Fundación LAIR”

    Serum Levels of CXCL13 Are Associated With Teriflunomide Response in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To identify biomarkers associated with treatment response in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with the oral therapies teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and fingolimod. METHODS: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) IL-1β, and chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) were measured at baseline and 12 months with single molecule array (Simoa) assays in a cohort of patients with MS treated with teriflunomide (N = 19), DMF (N = 22), and fingolimod (N = 25) and classified into "no evidence of disease activity" (NEDA) and EDA patients after 1 year of treatment. RESULTS: Serum CXCL13 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased after treatment with teriflunomide in NEDA compared with EDA patients after 1 year of treatment (p = 0.008 for both cytokines). These findings were validated in an independent cohort of patients with MS treated with teriflunomide (N = 36) and serum CXCL13, and TNF-α levels were again significantly reduced in NEDA patients (p < 0.0001 for CXCL13 and p = 0.003 for TNF-α). CXCL13, but not TNF-α, showed good performance to classify NEDA and EDA patients according to a cut-off value of 9.64 pg/mL based on the change in CXCL13 levels between baseline and 12 months, with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 82% in the original cohort, and sensitivity of 65.4% and specificity of 60% in the validation cohort. DISCUSSION: Altogether, these results point to CXCL13 as a treatment response biomarker to teriflunomide in relapsing-remitting patients with MS, and the change in CXCL13 levels during the first year of treatment can be used in clinical practice to identify optimal responders to teriflunomide

    CSF Chitinase 3–Like 2 Is Associated With Long-term Disability Progression in Patients With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

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    Multiple Sclerosis; ChitinaseEsclerosis múltiple; QuitinasaEsclerosi múltiple; QuitinasaObjective This study aimed to identify long-term prognostic protein biomarkers associated with disease progression in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods CSF samples were collected from a discovery cohort of 28 patients with progressive MS who participated in a clinical trial with interferon beta. Patients were classified into high and low disability progression phenotypes according to numeric progression rates (NPR) and step-based progression rates (SPR) after a mean follow-up time of 12 years. Protein abundance was measured by shotgun proteomics. Selected proteins from the discovery cohort were quantified by parallel reaction monitoring in CSF samples from an independent validation cohort of 41 patients with progressive MS classified also into high and low disability progression phenotypes after a mean follow-up time of 7 years. Results Of 2,548 CSF proteins identified in the discovery cohort, 10 were selected for validation based on their association with long-term disability progression: SPATS2-like protein, chitinase 3–like 2 (CHI3L2), plasma serine protease inhibitor, metallothionein-3, phospholipase D4, beta-hexosaminidase, neurexophilin-1, adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1, cathepsin L1, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. Only CHI3L2 was validated, and patients with high disability progression exhibited significantly higher CSF protein levels compared with patients with low disability progression (p = 0.03 for NPR and p = 0.02 for SPR). CHI3L2 levels showed good performance to discriminate between high and low disability progression in patients with progressive MS (area under the curve 0.73; sensitivity 90% and specificity 63%). Conclusions Although further confirmatory studies are needed, we propose CSF CHI3L2 as a prognostic protein biomarker associated with long-term disability progression in patients with progressive MS.This work was funded by grants from the International Progressive MS Alliance (grant no. PA0020), Asociación Esclerosis Múltiple (EME)—Red Española de Esclerosi múltiple (REEM), REEM (RD16/0015/002 and RD16/0015/003) cofunded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER, Otra manera de hacer Europa)

    DRB1*03:01 Haplotypes: Differential Contribution to Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Specific Association with the Presence of Intrathecal IgM Bands

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    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease with a genetic basis. The strongest associations with the disease lie in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region. However, except for the DRB1*15:01 allele, the main risk factor associated to MS so far, no consistent effect has been described for any other variant. One example is HLA-DRB1*03:01, with a heterogeneous effect across populations and studies. We postulate that those discrepancies could be due to differences in the diverse haplotypes bearing that allele. Thus, we aimed at studying the association of DRB1*03:01 with MS susceptibility considering this allele globally and stratified by haplotypes. We also evaluated the association with the presence of oligoclonal IgM bands against myelin lipids (OCMB) in cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS: Genotyping of HLA-B, -DRB1 and -DQA1 was performed in 1068 MS patients and 624 ethnically matched healthy controls. One hundred and thirty-nine MS patients were classified according to the presence (M+, 58 patients)/absence (M-, 81 patients) of OCMB. Comparisons between groups (MS patients vs. controls and M+ vs. M-) were performed with the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Association of DRB1*03:01 with MS susceptibility was observed but with different haplotypic contribution, being the ancestral haplotype (AH) 18.2 the one causing the highest risk. Comparisons between M+, M- and controls showed that the AH 18.2 was affecting only M+ individuals, conferring a risk similar to that caused by DRB1*15:01. CONCLUSIONS: The diverse DRB1*03:01-containing haplotypes contribute with different risk to MS susceptibility. The AH 18.2 causes the highest risk and affects only to individuals showing OCMB

    Circulating EZH2-positive T cells are decreased in multiple sclerosis patients

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    BACKGROUND: Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest an involvement of the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2) in important processes such as cell adhesion and migration. METHODS: Here, we aimed to expand these initial observations by investigating the role of EZH2 in MS. mRNA expression levels for EZH2 were measured by real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 121 MS patients (62 untreated and 59 receiving treatment) and 24 healthy controls. RESULTS: EZH2 expression levels were decreased in PBMC from untreated patients compared to that from controls, and treatment significantly upregulated EZH2 expression. Expression of miR-124 was increased in MS patients compared to controls. Blood immunophenotyping revealed EZH2 expression mostly restricted to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and circulating EZH2+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were decreased in untreated MS patients compared to controls. CD8+ T cells expressing EZH2 exhibited a predominant central memory phenotype, whereas EZH2+ CD4+ T cells were of effector memory nature, and both T cell subsets produced TNF-α. EZH2+ T cells were enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment compared to blood and were found in chronic active lesions from MS patients. EZH2 inhibition and microarray analysis in PBMC was associated with significant downregulation of key T cell adhesion molecules. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a role of EZH2 in the migration of T cells in MS patients. The observation of TNF-α expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing EZH2 warrants additional studies to explore more in depth the pathogenic potential of EZH2+-positive cells in MS
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