496 research outputs found

    Role of high dose octreotide LAR for the treatment of GEP-NETs

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    Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of rare neoplasms that account for 0,5% of all malignancies. The increased incidence observed in the last few decades may be accounted for by increased awareness, improved diagnostic tools and a revision in the definition. The main primary sites are the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract (62-67%), and the lung (22-27%). In patients with GEP-NETs, the strongest predictor of 5-years survival is the staging. An adequate clinical management of GEP-NETs should be multidisciplinary and should aim at assuring a good quality of life. Somatostatin (sst) analogues are widely used in these tumours, which often express sst receptors, since they are demonstrated to reduce clinical symptoms and tumour growth. Herein we explore the usefulness of doubling octreotide LAR dose in selected patients after escaping from symptoms control and/or tumour stabilization in course of treatment with standard dose

    Light-Induced Access to Carbazole-1,3-dicarbonitrile: A Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent (TADF) Photocatalyst for Cobalt-Mediated Allylations

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    The stability of a photocatalyst under irradiation is important in photoredox applications. In this work, we investigated the stability of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) photocatalyst {3DPAFIPN [2,4,6-tris(diphenylamino)-5-fluoroisophthalonitrile]}, recently employed in photoredox-mediated processes, discovering that in the absence of quenchers the chromophore is unstable and is efficiently converted by irradiation with visible light into another species based on the carbazole-1,3-dicarbonitrile moiety. The new species obtained is itself a TADF emitter and finds useful applications in photoredox transformations. At the excited state, it is a strong reductant and was efficiently applied to cobalt-mediated allylation of aldehydes, whereas other TADFs (4CzIPN and 3DPAFIPN) failed to promote efficient photocatalytic cycles

    Effects of IGF-1 isoforms on muscle growth and sarcopenia.

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    The decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength occurring in aging, referred as sarcopenia, is the result of many factors including an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, changes in metabolic/hormonal status, and in circulating levels of inflammatory mediators. Thus, factors that increase muscle mass and promote anabolic pathways might be of therapeutic benefit to counteract sarcopenia. Among these, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated in many anabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. IGF-1 exists in different isoforms that might exert different role in skeletal muscle. Here we study the effects of two full propeptides IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb in skeletal muscle, with the aim to define whether and through which mechanisms their overexpression impacts muscle aging. We report that only IGF-1Ea expression promotes a pronounced hypertrophic phenotype in young mice, which is maintained in aged mice. Nevertheless, examination of aged transgenic mice revealed that the local expression of either IGF-1Ea or IGF-1Eb transgenes was protective against age-related loss of muscle mass and force. At molecular level, both isoforms activate the autophagy/lysosome system, normally altered during aging, and increase PGC1-α expression, modulating mitochondrial function, ROS detoxification, and the basal inflammatory state occurring at old age. Moreover, morphological integrity of neuromuscular junctions was maintained and preserved in both MLC/IGF-1Ea and MLC/IGF-1Eb mice during aging. These data suggest that IGF-1 is a promising therapeutic agent in staving off advancing muscle weakness

    KIT is dispensable for physiological organ vascularisation in the embryo

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    Blood vessels form vast networks in all vertebrate organs to sustain tissue growth, repair and homeostatic metabolism, but they also contribute to a range of diseases with neovascularisation. It is, therefore, important to define the molecular mechanisms that underpin blood vessel growth. The receptor tyrosine kinase KIT is required for the normal expansion of hematopoietic progenitors that arise during embryogenesis from hemogenic endothelium in the yolk sac and dorsal aorta. Additionally, KIT has been reported to be expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic brain vascularisation and has been implicated in pathological angiogenesis. However, it is neither known whether KIT expression is widespread in normal organ endothelium nor whether it promotes blood vessel growth in developing organs. Here, we have used single-cell analyses to show that KIT is expressed in endothelial cell subsets of several organs, both in the adult and in the developing embryo. Knockout mouse analyses revealed that KIT is dispensable for vascularisation of growing organs in the midgestation embryo, including the lung, liver and brain. By contrast, vascular changes emerged during late-stage embryogenesis in these organs from KIT-deficient embryos, concurrent with severe erythrocyte deficiency and growth retardation. These findings suggest that KIT is not required for developmental tissue vascularisation in physiological conditions, but that KIT deficiency causes foetal anaemia at late gestation and thereby pathological vascular remodelling

    Performances Analysis of Titanium Prostheses Manufactured by Superplastic Forming and Incremental Forming

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    Abstract Titanium and its alloys are widely used in cranioplasty because they are biocompatible with excellent mechanical properties and favor the osseointegration with the bone. However, when Titanium alloys have to be worked several problems occurred from a manufacturing point of view: the standard procedure for obtaining Titanium prostheses is represented by the machining processes, which result time and cost consuming. The aim of this research consist to introduce alternative flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF) and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF), for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The research activities have already highlighted the potentiality of the investigated forming processes that can be alternatively used taking into account both the damage morphology and the need of urgency operation. In the present work, the way of manufacturing the Ti prostheses by SPF and SPIF is described. A comparative analysis has been performed, thus highlighting the peculiarities of the investigated processes and the prostheses feasibility

    Effects of IGF\u20101 isoforms on muscle growth and sarcopenia

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    The decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength occurring in aging, referred as sar\u2010copenia, is the result of many factors including an imbalance between protein synthe\u2010sis and degradation, changes in metabolic/hormonal status, and in circulating levels of inflammatory mediators. Thus, factors that increase muscle mass and promote anabolic pathways might be of therapeutic benefit to counteract sarcopenia. Among these, the insulin\u2010like growth factor\u20101 (IGF\u20101) has been implicated in many anabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. IGF\u20101 exists in different isoforms that might exert differ\u2010ent role in skeletal muscle. Here we study the effects of two full propeptides IGF\u20101Ea and IGF\u20101Eb in skeletal muscle, with the aim to define whether and through which mechanisms their overexpression impacts muscle aging. We report that only IGF\u20101Ea expression promotes a pronounced hypertrophic phenotype in young mice, which is maintained in aged mice. Nevertheless, examination of aged transgenic mice revealed that the local expression of either IGF\u20101Ea or IGF\u20101Eb transgenes was protective against age\u2010related loss of muscle mass and force. At molecular level, both isoforms activate the autophagy/lysosome system, normally altered during aging, and increase P GC1\u2010\u3b1 expression, modulating mitochondrial function, ROS detoxification, and the basal inflammatory state occurring at old age. Moreover, morphological integrity of neuromuscular junctions was maintained and preserved in both MLC/IGF\u20101Ea and MLC/IGF\u20101Eb mice during aging. These data suggest that IGF\u20101 is a promising thera\u2010peutic agent in staving off advancing muscle weakness

    Exon-trapping assay improves clinical interpretation of COL11A1 and COL11A2 intronic variants in stickler syndrome type 2 and otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia

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    Stickler syndrome (SS) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder affecting bones, eyes, and hearing. Type 2 SS and the SS variant otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) are caused by deleterious variants in COL11A1 and COL11A2, respectively. In both genes, available database information indicates a high rate of potentially deleterious intronic variants, but published evidence of their biological effect is usually insufficient for a definite clinical interpretation. We report our previously unpublished intronic variants in COL11A1 (c.2241 + 5G>T, c.2809 − 2A>G, c.3168 + 5G>C) and COL11A2 (c.4392 + 1G>A) identified in type 2 SS/OSMED individuals. The pathogenic effect of these variants was first predicted in silico and then investigated by an exon-trapping assay. We demonstrated that all variants can induce exon in-frame deletions, which lead to the synthesis of shorter collagen XI α1 or 2 chains. Lacking residues are located in the α-triple helical region, which has a crucial role in regulating collagen fibrillogenesis. In conclusion, this study suggests that these alternative COL11A1 and COL11A2 transcripts might result in aberrant triple helix collagen. Our approach may help to improve the diagnostic molecular pathway of COL11-related disorder

    Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19

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    Background The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19. Methods This retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013–2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th. Results Taste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5–10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time. Conclusion Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus

    Efficacy of antiseptic mouthrinses against SARS-CoV-2: A prospective randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

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    Coronavirus-disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to affect millions of individuals worldwide. Antiviral activity of mouthrinses remains an important research area as the oral cavity is a site of SARS-CoV-2 initial replication. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of three different mouthrinses in reducing the oral/oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load.Objectives: Coronavirus-disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to affect millions of individuals worldwide. Antiviral activity of mouthrinses remains an important research area as the oral cavity is a site of SARS-CoV-2 initial replication. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of three different mouthrinses in reducing the oral/oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Methods: Adult patients, hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited for the study. Oral/oropharyngeal baseline SARS-CoV-2 samples were collected and analyzed by Real-Time-PCR. Subsequently, patients were instructed to rinse with 1 % hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 0.12 % chlorhexidine (CHX), 1 % povidone‑iodine (PVPI) or Sodium Chloride 0.9 % (placebo). Viral loads were measured right after (T1), and at 45 min (T2) from the rinse. Results: In the PVP-I 1 % group, 5/8 (62.5 %) patients at T1, and 3/8 (37.5 %) patients at T2, SARS-CoV-2 was not detectable in the swab specimens. In the H2O2 1 % group, 2/11 (18.2 %) patients at T1, and 2/11 (18.2 %) other patients at T2 showed no SARS-CoV-2 loads. One (12.5 %) patient in the CHX 0.12 % group showed SARS-CoV-2 negativity at T2. One (9.1 %) patient at T1, and another (9.1 %) patient at T2 showed no SARS-CoV-2 loads in the placebo group. Conclusions: Oral SARS-CoV-2 loads were reduced at T1 in the PVP-I 1 % and H2O2 1 % groups. Clinical relevance: PVP-I 1 % was the most effective rinse especially in patients with low viral copy numbers at baseline

    The ACTyourCHANGE study protocol: promoting a healthy lifestyle in patients with obesity with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-a randomized controlled trial

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    BackgroundAs treatment of choice in promoting psychological flexibility, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was found to be effective in several conditions, and among different populations, including weight management in individuals with obesity. However, the mechanism of action of psychological flexibility is less known. The aim of the present study is, within the context of a brief ACT intervention for behavioral change and behavioral maintenance of a healthy lifestyle in a sample of inpatients with obesity, to explore the effect of each subcomponent of the psychological flexibility model on treatment processes and outcomes.MethodsA randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Ninety Italian adult inpatients with obesity attending a rehabilitation program for weight loss will be randomly allocated into three experimental conditions targeting respectively each subcomponent of the psychological flexibility model: group Engage focused on values-oriented behaviors, group Openness focused on acceptance and cognitive defusion, and group Awareness focused on being present and aware of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors at every moment. Weight, BMI (kg/m(2)), the Psychological General Well-Being Inventory (PGWBI), the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ-45.2), the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Brief Values Inventory (BVI), the Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ), the Italian-Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (I-CFQ), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) will be assessed at the beginning (time 0), at the end of psychological intervention (time 1), and after 3 (time 2) and 6months (time 3) and 9months (time 4) from discharge. During the following month after discharge, outpatients will be monitored in their adherence to a healthy lifestyle, using a wearable device.To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, mixed between-within 3 (conditions) x4 (times) repeated measure ANOVAs will be conducted to examine changes from time 0 to time 1, 2, 3, and 4 in means of weight, BMI, and means of scores PGWBI, OQ-45.2, DASS, DERS, DEBQ, AAQ-II, BVI, CAQ, I-CFQ, and FFMQ, between three groups.DiscussionThis study will contribute to clarify the mechanism of action of each subcomponent of the psychological flexibility model and understand its impact on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.govNCT04474509. Registered on July 4, 202
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