11 research outputs found


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    THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RECYCLED-PLASTIC PELLETS OBTAINED FROM DISPOSABLE FACE MASK WASTES. The government policy to wear a face mask during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased disposable face mask wastes. Thus, to reduce such wastes, it is necessary to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of disposable face masks wastes before the recycling process and the recycled products. In this study, physicochemical characterization of the 3-ply disposable face masks and the recycled plastic pellets after disinfection using 0.5% v/v sodium hypochlorite were evaluated. A set of parameters including the characterization of surface morphology by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), functional groups properties by a fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal behavior by a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength and elongation at break were evaluated. The surface morphological of each layer 3-ply disposable face mask showed that the layers were composed of non-woven fibers. The FT-IR evaluation revealed that 3-ply disposable face mask was made from a polypropylene. At the same time, the DSC analysis found that the polypropylene was in the form of homopolymer. The SEM analysis showed that the recycled plastic pellets showed a rough and uneven surface. The FT-IR, tensile strength and elongation at break of the recycled plastic pellets showed similarity with a virgin PP type CP442XP and a recycled PP from secondary recycling PP (COPLAST COMPANY). In summary, recycling 3-ply disposable face mask wastes to become plastic pellets is recommended for handling disposable face mask wastes problem

    Ameliorative effect of Etlingera calophrys (K.Schum.) rhizome ethanolic extract on high fat diet-induced obese zebrafish

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    Obesity is a major factor associated with inflammatory and various metabolic syndromes. Etlingera caloprhys, an Indonesia plant native from Southeast Sulawesi, is traditionally used years as daily food ingredient by local communities. The present paper presents an in vitro and in vivo study related to the anti-obesity effects of Etlingera caloprhys ethanol extract (ECEE). An experiment was conducted to evaluate in vitro pancreatic lipase enzyme (PLE) inhibition and in vivo anti-obesity activity in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese zebrafish fed with 10% w/w and 20% w/w ECEE-HFD were evaluated. To confirm anti-obesity activity, a set of obesity and biochemistry parameters i.e. body weight, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride and blood glucose levels, were monitored. Additionally, gene expression levels related to obesity i.e. adiponectin and PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were also evaluated. The results showed that ECEE significantly (p <0.05) inhibited PLE activity with an inhibition concentration (IC)50 of below 100 μg/mL. The HFD induced obese zebrafish fed with 10% w/w and 20% w/w ECEE-HFD showed decreasing body weight and BMI. The biochemistry parameters of the HFD-induced obese zebrafish fed with 10% w/w ECEE-HFD obviously displayed optimum reduction of triglycerides and blood glucose levels. More importantly, the gene expression confirmed that ECEE suppressed adipogenesis in VAT. Hence, ECEE is suggested as a potent alternative medicine for prevention of metabolic syndromes related to obesity

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Ce(Iv) ionic mediator in the presence of Ag(I) ion catalyst for environmental remediation

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    Methylene blue (MB) is often used in textile industries and is actively present in the wastewater runs-off. Recently, mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) offers a fast, reliable and promising results for environmental remediation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the electro-degradation potential of MB by MEO using Ce(IV) ionic mediator. Furthermore, we also observed the influence of addition Ag(I) ion catalyst in MEO for degradation of MB. The electro-degradation of MB was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry technique and was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and back-titration analysis. The results showed that in the absence of Ag(I) ion catalyst, about 89 % of MB was decolorized within 30 min. When 2 mM of Ag(I) ion catalyst was applied, the electro-degradation of MB was increased to maximum value of 100%. The UV-Vis spectrum confirmed the electro-degradation of MB as suggested by decreased maximum absorbance value at λ 668 nm from 2.125 to 0.059. The HPLC analysis showed the formation of five new peaks at retention time of 1.331, 1.495, 1.757, 1.908, and 2.017 min, confirming the electro-degradation of MB. The back-titration analysis showed about 52.9% of CO2 was produced during electro-degradation of MB by MEO. More importantly, more than 97% of Ce(IV) ionic mediator were recovered in our investigation. Our results showed the potential of MEO using Ce(IV) ionic mediator to improve the wastewater runs-off quality from textile as well as other industries containing methylene blue

    STUDI POTENSI MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn. DI KEBUN RAYA EKA KARYA BALI

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    Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn. (Rutaceae) is an aromatic plant, containing essential oils, and has been used traditionally as a medicine. The aims of this study were to determine the percentage of essential oil from B. albiflora leaves obtained from Eka Karya Botanic Garden Bali, as well as to understand the components of chemical constituents and its potential uses. The results showed that the leaves of B. albiflora contained 0.30% (v/w) of essential oils with the main chemical components, i.e. 1,1,3,3-tetra-tert-butyl-2-phenylsulfonylthiaguanidine (37.04%), 2-methyl-1-pentene (12.23%), cis-ocimene (9.91%), methyl-d3 3-butenyl ether (9.67%), and 4,4-di-trideuteromethyl-2-allylcyclohexanone (6.47%). Bioactive compounds contained in essential oils of leaves of B. albiflora are potential as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, aroma therapy and natural fragrance

    Ethnobotanical uses of ‘cemcem’ (Spondias pinnata (L. F.) kurz; anacardiaceae) leaves in bali (Indonesia) and its antioxidant activity

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    Spondias pinnata is commonly known in international fruit trade markets as wild mango or hog plum. The use of S. pinnata leaves is considered an integral part of the Balinese ethnobotanical tradition, and is used to make a herbal-medicinal beverage. This present study is not only to improve the historical and ethnobotanical knowledge of this important species, but also to analyse the antioxidant properties and polyphenolic content of the plant in order to confirm, if any, the traditionally well-known beneficial effects. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews through the snowball method. Informants were asked to determine how familiar they were with S. pinnata and its ethnobotanical values. In order to confirm antioxidant activity, the DPPH and ABTS•+ radical scavenging assays method, together with the Folin-Ciocalteu analysis were carried out. The present study indicated that S. pinnata possesses strong antioxidant activities based on the ABTS•+ and DPPH assays. It was also found that 100% methanolic extracts of S. pinnata leaves contain large amounts of phenolic compounds mainly responsible for free radical scavenging activities. Further study is essential in order to better understand the therapeutic values of S. pinnata leaves and its role in the prevention and treatment of ailments and chronic diseases mentioned in this study, such as diabetes, heartburn, and urolithiasis

    Transformation of Melinjo seed micropowders into nanopowders enhances extractability of phenolic compounds and tyrosinase inhibitory activity

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    Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed powder extract exhibited antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, thus showing potential as a dietary supplement or nutraceutical to prevent aging or hyperpigmentation. Previously, we found that particle size plays important role in extraction of bioactive compounds and influences their bioactivity. Thus, it is important to determine a certain particle size for the extraction process. In this study, we investigated the effects of transformation of melinjo seed micropowders into nanopowders by nanomilling using a high-energy ball mill (shaker mill). The effects of melinjo seed powders particle size on its physicochemical characteristics, extraction efficiency and release of phenolic compounds, as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity were observed. The nanomilling successfully transformed melinjo seed micropowders into nanopowders within 90 min of milling. Particle size analysis showed that melinjo seed nanopowders were produced with a mean particle diameter of ~675 nm (PI 0.270). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the melinjo seed nanopowders obviously showed a smaller particle size, a smooth surface, amorphous shapes and irregular edges. The melinjo seed nanopowders at mean particle diameter of ~675 nm exhibited the highest extraction yield and phenolic compounds release. As a consequence, the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the melinjo seed nanopowders was 4.5 times higher than that of the melinjo seed micropowders. Based on the results obtained in this study, transformation of melinjo seed micropowders into nanopowders is very promising for improving the efficacy of melinjo seed as tyrosinase inhibitor